“Power Policy and Politics in Independent Jamaica” in Jamaican in Independence: Essays on the Early Years. Ed, Rex Nettleford. Kingston: Heinemann Caribbean, 1989, 19-53. Thomas, Clive, Y. “The interrelationship between economic and social development” in Poverty, Empowerment and Social Development in the Caribbean.
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The first experience from later 19th Century to early 20th Century is the migration due to the economic and social situations in Puerto Rico while the second experience from 1940's to the present is mostly due to the chain migration and the thought that the United States will offer them a better life. Both waves of migration brought new experiences to the United States like the struggle of identity, politics, and power. The fundamental motive for leaving Puerto Rico was economic. The article "The Genesis of the Puerto Rican Migration" mentions that during 1878-1879 there was a major shift in capitalist mode from haciendas to sugar plantations. Around 1870 braceros and peasants began to leave the island to go to Santo Domingo, Cuba, etc...
"CONTEMPORARY MARXISM no. 3 (1981): 62-68. Selbin, Eric. "Resistance, Rebellion, and Revolution in Latin America and the Caribbean at the Millennium." Latin American Research Review 36, no.
Perez-Lopez, Jorge F., Cuba’s Second Economy: From Behind the Scenes to Center Stage, Transaction Publishers (1995). Theriot, Lawrence H., “Cuba Faces the Economic Realities of the 1980’s”, pgs. 257-276 in Louis Horowitz ed., Cuban Communism (7th ed. ), Transaction Publishers (1989). Watson, Hilbourne A., “The Techno-Paradigm Shift, Globalization, and Western Hemisphere Integration Trends and Tendencies: Mapping Issues in the Economic and Social Evolution of the Caribbean”, pgs.
The Early Modern Atlantic Economy Cambridge University Press, 2000, USA Menard, Russell. Sweet Negotiations: Sugar, Slaver, and Plantation Agriculture in Early Barbados University of Virginia Press, 2006, USA Journal Article Higman, B, W. The Sugar Revolution Schwarts, S, B. Tropical Babylons Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-168
"Sugar and Slavery in Puerto Rico, 1815-1849: An Overview," from Scarano ,Sugar and Slavery in Puerto Rico: Plantation Economy of Ponce,1800-1850(Madison :U of Wisconsin Press,1984) 3-34. del Valle Atiles, Francisco. "The Spiritual Life of the Jibaro" form :Iris M. Zavala and Rafael Rodriguez (eds. ), The Intellectual Roots of Independence: An Anthology of Puerto Rican Political Essays (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1980), 95-103.
Economic Development in Latin America. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978. Weaver, Frederick. Latin America in the World Economy: Mercantile Colonialism to Global Capitalism. Boulder: Westview Press, 2000.
Rites of Rhythm. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2003. Shepherd, Verene A., and Hilary McD. Beckles., ed Caribbean slavery in the Atlantic world. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle, Oxford: James Currey, Princeton, NJ: M. Weiner, 2000.