Disease, such as hepatiti... ... middle of paper ... ...rnal of Hospital Infection, 74, 99-111. Martin, M., Fulford, M., & Preston, T. (2009). Infection Control for the Dental Team. London: Quintessence Publishing Co. Molinari, J., & Hart, J. (2010).
It is the first stage of gum disease. The beginning of this disease may not show any immediate symptoms and yet may spread out to other part of the periodontal cavity (the bone and soft tissues responsible for keeping the teeth anchored). When the disease gets to this stage, then gingivitis is already at its peak. This stage is medically known as periodontitis stage (Inflammation of the periodontal cavity). There are many things that comes to play when considering gingivitis (inflammation of the gum) but the major cause is a micro-organism known as BACTERIA.
Gingivitis is a type of periodontal disease and is when the gums are inflamed. The gums in the teeth destroy the tissues because of the inflammation and infection known as periodontal disease (MedlinePlus n. pag.). Gingivitis typically precedes periodontitis but it is important to understand that not all gingivitis progresses to periodontitis (“Gum Disease” n. pag.).
The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene, which encourages plaque to form on teeth, causing inflammation of the surrounding gum tissue that can also cause bleeding of the gums. If gingivitis is left untreated it can turn into periodontitis, which is the second stage of gum disease and more serious.
Chemical: Acids in foods and beverages such as citrus fruits, spices, wines and carbonated beverages; acids produced by acidogenic bacteria following carbohydrate exposure; acids from gastric regulation. (Wilkins, BS, RDH, DMD, 2013) stimuli, according to Brannstroms Hydrodynamic Theory. Anatomically, the areas of the tubules closer to the pulp activates the nerves associated with the odontoblasts at the end of the tubule, resulting in pain response. Tooth brushing techniques causing gingival trauma are a significant factor for gingival recession. The frequency, duration and force of brushing all contribute to recession.
The most commonly seen species of bacteria phyla found in the mouth Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Tenericutes. The oral flora is important to maintain, and periodontitis, imflammation of the gums, is one specific disease of the mouth that is due to a contribution of a change in the microbiota. In order to maintain a healthy oral microbiota, brushing teeth with toothpaste and flossing are recommended. The mouth is known to be the cause for many diseases, especially heart disease due to the easy access to the bloodstream (Wade). The microbiota is made up of many types of bacteria that work together to maintain proper health when the patient has good oral hygiene habits.
The rate of fluoride absorption is directly related to the acidity of the stomachs contents (3), once fluoride is absorbed it reaches the plasma, it is then rapidly deposited in the skeleton or excreted through the kidneys. Fluoride is used in dentistry two ways; the first, topical fluoride acts on the teeth already present and include toothpastes, rinses, gels, and varnishes. The second is systemic fluoride which is ingested into the body and becomes incorporated into forming structures through supplements and water fluoridation. Fluoride protects the tooth enamel against the acids that cause tooth decay. Fluoride has five principle mechanisms of action: inhibits demineralization, promotes remineralization of tooth enamel, inhibits bacterial metabolism or enzyme activity in dental plaque by reducing the ability of the plaque organism to produce acid, aids in post eruptive maturation of enamel, and reduces enamel solubility (1).
Periodontitis is the gum disease that was left untreated and it can lead to severe damage. When gingivitis advances to periodontitis, periodontitis makes the gums pull away from the teeth and form spaces. The spaces sort of like gaps, are more prone for it to get infected with bacteria. When the bacteria grow below the gum line, the body tries to fight off the infection. The body might break down the bone and the connective tissue that holds the teeth because the bacteria might grow in the tissue.