In addition I will look at the two methods of reproduction and how each leads to similar or different traits expressed in the offspring, as well as the evolutionary significance of genetic variation within a population. Every cell in every living organism contains DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is wound up around proteins to form chromosomes, and along these chromosomes are sections which code for different traits in the organism, known as genes. Thus the program of genetics is written in the language of DNA (Steitz undated). Chromosomes are comprised of thousands of genes, each having specific sequences of nucleotides which code for specific traits in the organism or functions within each cell.
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The subject of traditional genetics alludes to the genome as the complete sequence of bases along a strand of DNA, the part epigenetic elements deals with the role of environmental factors in determining the epigenome of a cell and henceforth gene expression. Depending on each cell, some do not constantly require every gene it contains in its DNA, cells require their genes to be expressed or “turned on”, for example hair follicle cells or in other cells, for example muscle cells, and the gene is “turned off”. While the field of epigenetics is not yet entirely comprehended by epigeneticists , its incorporations of genomic engraving gives a precise clarification of inheritance. The new theory of epigenetics possess several mechanisms which enhances the understanding of epigenetics for example; DNA methylation, Chromatin remodelling, histone modification and non- coding RNAs. DNA methylation is the procedure of a methyl (CH3) cluster added to the 5- carbon of the cytosine ring to produce 5- methylcytosine.
The resultant recombinant DNA “construct” is usually designed to express the protein(s) that are encoded by the gene(s) included in the construct, when present in the genome of a transgenic animal. Because the genetic code for all organisms is made up of the same four nucleotide building blocks, this means that a gene makes the same protein whether it is made in an animal, a plant or a microbe. Genetic engineering also known as genetic modification, is a direct manipulation of a genome with the use of biotechnology. Genomes are able to removed by using a nuclease, an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bond between the nucleotide subunits of nucleic acids. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by isolating and copying the genetic material that is desired by using molecular cloning methods.