A. afarensis lived in eastern Africa between 3 and 4 million years ago. This australopithecine had a brain size a little larger than chimpanzees. Some had canine teeth more sticking out than those of later hominines. No tools of any kind have been found with A. afarensis fossils. According to Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia ’98, between about 2.5 million and 3 million years ago, A. afarensis clearly evolved into A. africanus.
Morphological: “Bonobos can be distinguished from chimpanzees by their more slender frame, longer hind limbs, shorter clavicle, and smaller molars. “It has been established through molecular genetic analyses that the chimpanzee genus, P. paniscus, is most closely related to humans and shares approximately 98% genetic identity” (AZA, 1998, p.1). Bonobos are generally smaller than chimpanzee genus, P. Troglodytes and are less dimorphic, males are only 30% heavier’ (Hodgson, 1998,p.1). “There is sexual dimorphism in the canines where the males’ are longer than the canines of the females”(Flannery, 2000, p.1). “Molecular biologists estimate that the bonobo diverged from its relative, the common chimpanzee, only about 1.5 million years ago”(Kano, 1990, p.1).
Anamensis is thought to have existed between 4.2 and 3.9 million years ago. The teeth and jaws are very similar to those of older fossil apes. A partial tibia supports bipedality. The first fossil of this species was found in Kanapoi Kenya by Bryan Patterson. The fossil was a lower left humerous dated to be about 4.0 million years old.
Indirect evidence suggests that it was possibly bipedal, and that some individuals were about 4'0 tall. The teeth appear to be more apelike than any other hominid. Another fossil is the Australopithecus africanus which was found by Dr. Raymond Dart in 1925 in a limestone quarry in South Africa. Brain size ranged between 420 and 500 cc. Although the teeth and jaws of africanus are much larger than those of humans, they are far more similar to human teeth than to ape teeth.
Wilford states “just as people look different from one another today, so did early homonids” (Wilford 2013). Another aspect to consider is the fact that skull 5 was found outside of Africa suggesting that brain size might not have been the primary driving force of migration because the fossil know as skull 5 had a smaller braincase than Homo erectus (Wilford 2013). Homo erectus was believed to be the only Homo to have left Africa (Price and Feinman 2013). This find can result in one of two conclusions. Firstly, only one type of homo existed during this time period bundling up habilis, erectus, and other variations of erectus into one; and secondly, that early hominids other than erectus likely migrated out of Africa contrary to what is currently believed.
The species here are listed roughly in order of appearance in the fossil record (note that this ordering is not meant to represent an evolutionary sequence), except that the robust australopithecines are kept together. Ardipithecus ramidus It is the oldest known hominid species, found in the Middle Awash region of Ethiopia in 1994 by Tim White and dated at 4.4 million years. Most remains are skull fragments. Indirect evidence suggests that it was possibly bipedal, and that some individuals were about 122 cm (4'0") tall. The teeth are intermediate between those of earlier apes and A. afarensis, but one baby tooth is very primitive, resembling a chimpanzee tooth more than any other known hominid tooth.
Bonobos inhabit a single part of Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo South of the Congo River, unlike the Chimpanzee, which inhabits Across West- and Central Africa, with remaining populations distributed over several countries. While these two apes where once thought to be the same species, up until the beginning of the 20th century , there are many differences socially, as well as physically, that make Bonobos more than a Pygmy Chimp. With disparities in morphology, behavior, perhaps even emotions and cognition, and known as the “make love, not war chimp” , how can this ape be so vastly different from its notoriously violent Pan cousin, but yet share the same amount of similar DNA to Homo sapiens? And what does this mean for the studies of human and past humanoid behavior? Physiology With a 99.6% genetic similarity to Chimpanzees , the physical appearance of Bonobos is very similar to them.
(11) The earliest of these forms, Ardepithecus ramidus, differs from their chimp-like counterparts only in their dentition, notably the smaller, shorter canine. Despite that seemingly minor difference, the evolutionary future of these branches hinged on that dental alteration 4.5 million years ago. The next hominid in the theorized line is Australopithecus anamens... ... middle of paper ... ... have generated potentially fertile offspring. It is unclear whether any of these potential offspring continued to interbreed within Cro-Magnon populations and thus passed on their genetic material, but no conclusive evidence points to either answer definitively. Neandertals were a unique evolutionary foray that adapted well to the northern climates, but never to the altered climates after the end of the ice ages.
459-60, Penguin 1985.) The latest discoveries in paleontology once again reveal the rich and complex evolution of the human species. In March, the magazine 'Nature' reported on a new fossil find in Kenya of a 3.5 million year-old skull. Originally, it was thought that the human linkage had been traced back to an ancestral genus called the Australopithecines (the "Southern Ape"), the most famous remains being 'Lucy', discovered by D.C. Johanson. These proto-humans roamed the savannahs and Rift Valley of Africa more than 3 million years ago, and are closer to modern humans than apes.
The population of Homo antecessor that remained in Africa evolved into Homo sapiens. Another possibility is that Homo antecessor is ancestral to both Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. The Neanderthal was not human. Genetic evidence from a comparison of human and Neanderthal mitochondria shows that while chimpanzee and human lineage's diverged four million years ago, the Neanderthals diverged over 550,000 to 690,000 years ago. Human trunk and limb bones of Homo antecessor, recovered from the Ran Doling site, in the Sierra de Atapuerca have been dated at about 780,000 old and are said to represent the last common ancestor for Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis.