The Human Brain

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“The human brain enables a person to reason, function intellectually, express personality and mood, and interact with the environment” (Sugerman, 2008, p. 277). Our brain is truly remarkable. Considering how much we still do not know about the brain just goes to show how complex and amazing the brain is. No other organ is like the brain and all other organs would be unable to function without the brain. “The three major divisions of the brain are (1) the forebrain, formed by the two cerebral hemispheres; (2) the midbrain which, includes the corpora quadrigemina and cerebral peduncles; and (3) the hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum, pons, and medulla” (Sugerman, 2008, p. 277). First off the brain stem is made up of the midbrain, medulla and pons, these connect the hemispheres of the brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord (Sugerman, 2008, p. 277). The brain stem is made up of nerve bodies called reticular formation, which is in charge of some of the most vital operations of the body, cardiovascular and respiration functions (Sugerman, 2008, p. 277). These two functions are done involuntarily each day. We do not need to think about breathing every few seconds or make our heart beat constantly. This process keeps us awake also. Different nuclei are responsible for different motor functions accordingly (Sugerman, 2008, p. 278). “The cerebellum is composed of gray and white matter, and its cortical surface is convoluted like the surface of the cerebrum. It is also divided by a central fissure into two lobes connected by vermis” (Sugerman, 2008, 284). The cerebellum has many functions, it is in charge of reflexes, involuntary fine-tuning of motor control and for maintaining balance and posture through extensive neural connections with the medulla (Sugerman, 2008, 284). The little brain or cerebellum, “receives information from the balance system of the inner ear, sensory nerves, and the auditory and visual systems. It is involved in the coordination of motor movements as well as basic facets of memory and learning, homeostatic control,”. The diencephalon has four major parts: epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and subthalamus. The thalamus is in charge of “relaying the cerebral cortex information received from diverse brain regions...Axons from every sensory system (except olfaction) synapse here as the last relay site before the information reaches the cerebral cortex” (Sci.uidaho, n.d., para. 2,3). The thalamus surrounds the third ventricle, it allows many sensations to be perceived (Sugerman, 2008, 283).

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