Calculus, the mathematical study of change, can be separated into two departments: differential calculus, and integral calculus. Both are concerned with infinite sequences and series to define a limit. In order to produce this study, inventors and innovators throughout history have been present and necessary. The ancient Greeks, Indians, and Enlightenment thinkers developed the basic elements of calculus by forming ideas and theories, but it was not until the late 17th century that the theories and concepts were being specified. Originally called infinitesimal calculus, meaning to create a solution for calculating objects smaller than any feasible measurement previously known through the use of symbolic manipulation of expressions. Generally accepted, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz were recognized as the two major inventors and innovators of calculus, but the controversy appeared when both wanted sole credit of the invention of calculus. This paper will display the typical reason of why Newton was the inventor of calculus and Leibniz was the innovator, while both contributed an immense amount of knowledge to the system.
The Bernoulli family had eight significant and important mathematicians, starting with Jacob Bernoulli, born in 1654. Though there was a great deal of hatred and jealousy between the Bernuollis, they made many remarkable contributions in mathematics and science and helped progress mathematics to become what it is today. For example, Daniel discovered a way to measure blood pressure that was used for 170 years, which advanced the medical field. Daniel’s way of measuring pressure is still used today to measure the air speed of a plane. Without the Bernoulli family’s contributions and advancements to calculus, probability, and other areas of mathematics and science, mathematics would not be where it is now.
(Calculus) Little was done for a century after this toward logically strengthening the underpinnings of calculus. (Eves p.132)
Malcolm, Shirley, and Treisman, Uri. “Calculus Success for All Students.” Calculus for a New Century: A Pump not a Filter, Steen, Lynn (ed.). Mathematical Association of America: Washington, DC, 1987.
Newton’s inventive years with mathematics were from 1664 to 1696. Even though his companions also had likely various elements of the calculus, Newton summed everything up and included these ideas of his while developing new and more exact methods. The necessary elements of his thought were on hand in three tracts, De analysi (On Analysis), which went unpublished until 1711. In 1671, Newton developed a more absolute account of his course of infinitesimals, which appeared nine years after his death as “Methodus fluxionum et serierum infinitarum”.
Rene Descartes was a famous French mathematician, scientist and philosopher. He was arguably the first major philosopher in the modern era to make a serious effort to defeat skepticism. His views about knowledge and certainty, as well as his views about the relationship between mind and body have been very influential over the last three centuries.
Though the Age of Enlightenment had a major impact on the development of rational thought and many scientific and religious ideals, without the works of two major philosophers, Isaac Newton and John Locke, the Enlightenment period would have had a hard time taking off. More specifically Isaac Newton’s “Principa Mathematica” and John Locke’s “Essay Concerning human Understanding” Enriched the Enlightenment period with the necessary Philosophical, Mathematical and Scientific understandings that it needed to make the major accomplishments that the period accomplished, and ar...
The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1729) Newton's Principles of Natural Philosophy, Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1968