14 Feb. 2000 Lewis, David Levering. The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader. New York: Viking Penguin, 1994. ?What is the Harlem Renaissance?? 14 Feb. 2000
The Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage. New York: Facts on File, Inc.,, 1997. Colliers Encyclopedia. New York: P. F. Collier, 1996. Encyclopedia Americana, International Version.
Marcus Garvey. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. O'Meally, Robert G. "Ellison, Ralph." Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. 1996 ed.
Jet (February 1996) pp.62 West, Cornel and Salzman, Jack. Encyclopedia of African American Culture and History. New York: Schuster and Simon and the trustees of Columbia University Press, 1996. Wheeler, Robyn. “Making classical history”.
Because of their powerful rhetoric, important political connections, and financial support, northern whites had often been important activists in early fights for racial equality. Northern whites saw their urban environment as socially and economically integrated. Black doctors, lawyers and financiers mingled freely with upper class whites; this unconscious socialization was not only common among white collar professions but also amongst the middle and lower classes. Unfortunately, this social harmony would end abruptly with the second Great Migration of southern blacks to northern cities during the 1940s and 1950s. This migration resulted f... ... middle of paper ... ...African Americans.
Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1984 Lewis, David Levering, ed. The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader. New York: Penguin, 1994 Salley, Columbus. The Black 100. New Jersey: A Citadel Press Book, 1993.
Neal was just one of the important writers of the Black Arts Movement era. Other writers, poets, and essayists illustrated a new beginning for the black community to overcome their hardships and to rise up artistically. The concept of Black Power stemmed from the Black Arts Movement. Black Power was a political movement that arose to express a new racial consciousness among Blacks in the United States. Black Power represented a racial dignity leading to freedom from white authority in economic and political grounds.
The Hammers of Creation: Folk Culture in Modern African-American Fiction. Athens Ga.: The University of Georgia Press, 1992. Hemenway, Robert E. Zora Neale Hurston: a Literary Biography. Chicago Il: University of Illinois Press, 1977. "Harlem Renaissance."
24 Jan. 2014 http://www.encyclopedia.com Hill Lablan. HARLEM STOMP. New York: Little, Brown and Company,2003.Print Pg.6 Pg. 33-51 Keyserling, Hermann “WHAT THE NEGRO MEANS TO AMERICA.” Atlantic Monthly. Oct. 1929: 444.