Education and employment opportunities had led to the development of a small black middle class. Few blacks thought that their future lay in the economically depressed rural South and hundreds of thousands migrated to seek prosperity and opportunity in the North. As these more educated and socially conscious blacks settled into New York’s neighborhood of Harlem, it developed into the cultural and political center of black America. The 1910s also marked the rising of a political agenda advocating racial equality throughout the black community, especially in the growing black middle class. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), founded to fight for the rights of blacks, and black sociologist W. E. B.
As a result of World War I and the Industrial Revolution there were better job opportunities for African Americans as well. At the end of the American Civil War in 1865 many free African Americans searched for a place with education and employment opportunities. They ended up finding this place in Harlem, New York. This was where the first black middle class was created. In the early 1900’s the African American middle class began to publicize for racial equality.
There was an explosion of culture in Harlem the great migration helps get cultural renewal for the people in New York City. When African Americans relocated, they seek jobs and an overall better way of life. Critics however questioned whether the Harlem Renaissance really met its goals for giving blacks a new identity. Due to literary roots, black owned magazines and newspapers flourished freeing African Americans. It was a good time for a cultural celebration; African Americans had faced slavery and oppression.
The Harlem Renaissance emerged amid social and intellectual upheaval in the African American community in the early 20th century. Several factors laid the groundwork for the movement. A black middle class had developed by the turn of the century, fostered by increased education and employment opportunities following the American Civil War (1861-1865). During the Great Migration, hundreds of thousands of black Americans moved from an economically depressed rural South to industrial cities of the North to take advantage of the employment opportunities created by World War I. As more and more educated and socially conscious blacks settled in New York's neighborhood of Harlem, it developed into the political and cultural center of black America.
After World War I, segregation policies known as Jim Crow Laws were enforced in the South and forced the blacks to contribute to the sharecropping system. In the meantime, the North was lacking a great number of industrial workers due to the shortage of European immigrants after the Great War. Thus, many of the black southerners left and moved to the North. The increased black population in the North during the Great Migration created a new black urban culture for themselves. The Great Migration led to an increase in African American political involvement that would make an impact in black culture ever since.
Although it considered as an African American literary movement, the Harlem Renaissance is way beyond the fine arts music, books, dance and poetry. Those arts are representations of creative minds to influence the every corner of the current society, also for those people who are black they could abolished the title “ Slaves” . There were three quarter of million Americans escaped to the North due to the economic depression during the early 20th century. They migrated to the North in a extremly desparate attempt to to find better jobs and the society which was more tolerant racially. There were 175000 African American moved to New York City.
The abolition of slavery in the United States presented southern African Americans with many new opportunities, including the option of relocation in search of better living conditions. The mass movement of black people from the rural areas of the South to the cities of the North, known as the Black Migration, came in the 1890s when black men and women left the south to settle in cities such as Philadelphia and New York, fleeing from the rise of Jim Crowe Laws and searching for work. This migration of blacks from the South has been an important factor in the formation of the Harlem Renaissance. The period referred to as the Harlem Renaissance, was a flourishing period of artistic and literary creation in African-American culture and helped birth the school of thought characterized by the "New Negroes" of the North. The term “New Negro” transformed the stereotypical image of African Americans as ex-slaves that were ignorant and inferior, to a race of intellectuals who articulated their culture in writing, art, and music.
The Black Arts Movement The Black Arts movement refers to a period of “furious flowering” of African American creativity beginning in the mid-1960’s and continuing through much of the 1970’s (Perceptions of Black). Linked both chronologically and ideologically with the Black Power Movement, The BAM recognized the idea of two cultural Americas: one black and one white. The BAM pressed for the creation of a distinctive Black Aesthetic in which black artists created for black audiences. The movement saw artistic production as the key to revising Black American’s perceptions of themselves, thus the Black Aesthetic was believed to be an integral component of the economic, political, and cultural empowerment of the Black community. The concepts of Black Power, Nationalism, Community, and Performance all influenced the formation of this national movement, and it proliferated through community institutions, theatrical performance, literature, and music.
This movement included poetry and writing, which forever changed the African-American lifestyle into a unique and more educated culture. As the African American culture expanded their horizon, and viewed passed the obstacles and barriers that were set by other ethnic groups, many families migrated to the northern cities, including New York City. Harlem was a magical, transforming place then, and that was especially true for the forsaken civilians who went to New York in search of a greater opportunity. Many believe, the Harlem Renaissance truly began, when W.E.B. Dubois, editor of "The Crisis magazine" published "The Souls of Black Folks".
The front-runners of this revival were extremely focused on cultural growth through means of intellect, literature, art and music. By using these means of growth, they hoped to destroy the pervading racism and stereotypes suffocating the African American society and yearned for racial and social integration. Many black writers spoke out during this span of time with books proving their natural humanity and desire for equality. In 1923 Jean Toomer’s Cane was published by the Boni and Liveright publishing company and received favorable reviews. The book was released during the heart of the Harlem Renaissance and promoted the encouragement and interest in African American culture.