The Haber Process Of Ammonia

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Ammonia is one of the most abundant chemicals compounds found on Earth. Ammonia is made up of nitrogen and hydrogen ions. Due to nitrogen’s affinity for protons, ammonia is a basic compound. Ammonia was discovered by Joseph Priestley in 1774, and the exact compound was found by Claude-Louis Berthollet in 1785 (Seagrave 2018). The major method of ammonia production is called the Haber process. The Haber method involves combining nitrogen and hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures inside of a PFR reactor with a catalyst present in the reactor (Ammonia 2016). Ammonia is highly abundant because it is produced in soil and through the waste of plants and animals. Ammonia is used so often because it can be easily transformed from a liquid to a gas, and vice versa. Its chemical properties make ammonia dissolvable in water, which will form ammonia hydroxide. Ammonia is used in everyday life; some examples of this are
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Catalytic hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen to convert organo-sulfur compounds into hydrogen sulfides (Lichtarowicz 2016).
〖H_2〗_((g) )+RSH_((g) )→RH_((g) )+H_2 S_((g) )
The hydrogen sulfide produced is removed by passing the gas over zinc oxide, forming solid zinc sulfide.
H_2 S_((g) )+ZnO_((g) )→ZnS_((s) )+H_2 O_((g) )
The hydrogen that is fed into the reactor is produced by methane reformation.
〖〖CH〗_4〗_((g) )+H_2 O_((g) )→CO_((g) )+3H_((g) )
Carbon monoxide is then used to convert water, through a water gas shift reaction, into more hydrogen and carbon dioxide (Lichtarowicz 2016). Using adsorption, the carbon dioxide is then removed. The hydrogen stream is scrubbed of all traces of carbon monoxide and carbon monoxide using a process known as catalytic methanation.
CO_((g) )+3〖H_2〗_((g) )→C〖H_4〗_((g) )+〖H_2〗_((g) )
C〖O_2〗_((g) )+4〖H_2〗_((g) )→C〖H_4〗_((g) )+2H_2 O_((l)
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