Diabetes Melitus Type 2 (T2DM) from the biomedical model and social models of health have important differences. This paper illustrates that the sociological approach to T2DM goes beyond the pathophysiology of the biomedical model and is founded on the premise that social factors impact health. An overview of the biomedical model and discussion of T2DM within this model is followed by a description of the sociological model with a discussion of T2DM within this model. Evidence will support the assertion that using a sociological approach will add to the understanding of the sociological factors contributing to the development of T2DM. The biomedical model of health has its foundations in Pasteurs (1822-1896) germ theory with Koch's (1843-1910) refinement to specific causative factors resulting in specific diseases (Germov, 2009, p. 11; Saggers & Gray, 2007, pp.
2013, ‘Opposing socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obese adults’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 32-38 Rosier, K. 2011, ‘Food insecurity in Australia: What is it, who experiences it and how can child and family services support families experiencing it?’, Australian Institute of Family Studies, viewed 8 April, < http://www.aifs.gov.au/cafca/pubs/sheets/ps/ps9.html> Wilkinson, R. & Marmot, M. 2003, Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts, second edition, World Health Organization Europe, Denmark, pp. 1-31.
In 2008, the World Health Organisation developed a Commission on Social Determinants of Health entitled "Closing the Gap in a Generation". This report recognised two crucial aspects of social determinants of health that impact the lives and health of those within the Travelling Community (CSDH, 2008). The first aspect examines daily living conditions and access to adequate health care. The second aspect refers to equity in health care services, economic inequalities and distribution of power, money, and resources (CSDH, 2008). Inequalities within these areas give rise to unequal and unjust health outcomes for travellers (Marmot, 2004).
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The purpose of this essay is to firstly give an overview of the existence of inequalities of health related to ethnicity, by providing some evidence that ethnic inequality in health is a reality in the society and include definitions of keywords. Secondly, I will bring forward arguments for and against on the major sociological explanations (racial discrimination, arefact, access to and quality of care) for the existence of health inequalities related to ethnicity. Thirdly, I would also like to take the knowledge learnt for this topic and brief outline how this may help me in future nursing practice. First of all, it is important to consider the whole aspect of ethnicity as it has other elements such as race and culture which goes along side this concept. Barry and Yuill (2008, p128) both state that ethnicity is “a common cultural heritage that is sociology learned and constructed”.
The concept of health sociology involves examining the social trends and patterns in health and illness which varies in different social groups and populations. For the reflection of the complexity of social aspects and the communities with the different health characteristics result in the development of health sociology. This essay will discuss how two major sociological theories, Functionalism and Weberianism, that illustrate the different perspectives on interpreting a variety of health problems by utilising the concept of the social determinants of health and investigate what contribute the viewpoint of health professionals’ knowledge and their practices on health and disease. It also illustrates on how the health sociology is contradistinguished from a medical model. All medical professionals should have a greater understanding of the external social effects that comes from different social backgrounds of the patient in order to initiate and deliver the best care possible to the patient (Matthews, 2015).
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