(Foot 1972: 311). Morality and its standards are often assumed to be 'intrinsically' motivating, and this is how they regulate society's behaviour. (Prinz in Batson 2011:41). Yet Batson suggests rather than intrinsically motivating, we conform to the principles to avoid social and self-rewards, where we are viewed as morally good. Morality for Kant is determined by whether certain moral actions could be turned into a universal maxim.
Immanuel Kant's The Grounding For The Metaphysics of Morals and John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers who addressed the issues of morality in terms of how moral traditions are formed. Immanuel Kant has presented one viewpoint in "The Grounding For The Metaphysics of Morals" that is founded on his belief that the worth of man is inherent in his ability to reason. John Stuart Mill holds another opinion as presented in the book, "Utilitarianism" that is seemingly in contention with the thoughts of Kant. What is most distinctive about the ethics of morality is the idea of responsibilities to particular individuals. According to Kant and Mill, moral obligations are not fundamentally particularistic in this way because they are rooted in universal moral principles.
An Exposition of Kant’s, Arendt’s, and Mill’s Moral Philosophy Immanuel Kant adheres to Deontological ethics. His theory offers a view of morality based on the principle of good will and duty. According to him, people can perform good actions solely by good intentions without any considerations to consequences. In addition, one must follow the laws and the categorical imperative in order to act in accordance with and from duty. Several other philosophers such as Hannah Arendt discuss Kant’s moral philosophy.
Kant also believes that an action is right or wrong based solely on the reason by which it was performed. However, a Utilitarian, like John Mill, would reject Kant’s reasoning of originating good characters out of actions alone, and instead argue that if an action has bad consequences, then the action was morally wrong. Kant believes that an action has moral worth only if it is done out of respect for our moral code. He names this moral action a ‘duty.’ Kant also believes that in determining the moral worth of an action, we need to look at the maxim by which it was performed. So, we need to look at one’s reason for doing an action to determine if it is a duty.
For instance, both philosophers recognize that morality needs to follow a set of moral rules. These rules for Kant are referred to as “duties” and “subordinate principles” for Mill (Kant, 2005: 37; Mill, 2011: 26). In addition, both philosophers provide that morality tends to be stimulated by something. For Kant, morality is in part about fulfilling a duty to humanity. Whereas for Mill, the purpose of morality is about overall happiness.
Kant notices that we can only control our own motives, we cannot control the consequences of our motives, and therefore, we should make decisions based on action, not the consequences. Kant assumes that reason is the best method of deciding what is moral. Within a free society, not dictated by a corrupt leader, or even influenced by what religion expects of one, one is capable of making a rational decision about right and wrong. Kant believes that if one is moral because the law or even if God’s law mandates it, the person is not truly making moral decisions, but is simply following rules in order to get a reward or avoid punishment. Rational people are capable of figuring out what is right and wrong.
When he defines these moral rules, he characterizes them in the form of imperatives – the hypothetical imperative and categorical imperative. While hypothetical imperatives deal with motivations and actions that lead to a particular end, categorical imperatives are a product of rational behavior in human beings. Kant considers such categorical imperatives to be the moral basis for life. As a result, when a person who is “cold and indifferent to the sufferings of others’ does an action that elicits a positive response from someone by helping them, he is more morally worthy according to Kant. Such a person does this action even when he does not want or feel like doing that action.
Immanuel Kant, a famous German philosopher, was influenced by Aristotle views in philosophy. In his work, the Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals, Kant argues his view for ethics, deontology. Deontology believe that it is our duty to be morality right. It also says that certain types of actions are wrong or right, but how are we positive of what is right or wrong? Actions are the result of our choices and we should base our actions on our choices.
Kant expresses ethics differently than utilitarianism, as he displaces the importance of emotions in decision-making; however, he does mention the presence of emotions and feelings without disregarding their existence. Kant stresses the importance of reason and rationality, because human beings are the only beings on earth that have this trait and he believes it should be used sufficiently in our decisions. In order to act morally, humans must use reason in their mental processes and freely choose to follow and fulfill moral principles, laws, and rules in order to be truly moral beings. To further express the moral worth of duty, duties are performed to fulfill and obey moral laws and when humans use free will to choose to do so. Kant also... ... middle of paper ... ...r act of duty needs to be performed in the current circumstance, to call the judgment moral.
According to Kant deontological ethical theory focuses on duty. It is viewed that humans have a duty in doing what is ethically right in any given situation. However, the categorical imperative does not have the same ideas it does not consist of duties to our selves. As Kant indicates in idea of the Kingdom of Ends that our duty lies in treating all human being as ends in and of themselves instead of as a means to an end it is perceived as being an extension to our selves. It is based on the desires of a person in how they want to be treated and will succeed as long as the universal good is applied as well.