This financial crisis also referred to as the great recession was triggered by liquidity problems in the United States economy. Many large financial institutions collapsed according to Geczy (2010). The government had to bail out some banks and this resulted in a decrease in the stock and money funds investments in the United States and spread on all across the globe. A report compiled by the U.S Financial Crises Inquiry Commission shows that the infamous global crises could have been avoided. It pointed out that failure in different financial institutions including the Federal Reserve accelerated the crises.
In the late 2000s, the World suffered from a big global economic crisis which caused “the largest and sharpest drop in global economic activity of the modern era”, in which “most major developed economies find themselves in a deep recession”, according to McKibbin and Stoeckel (1). Because its consequences have a very big impact to the whole world, many economists and scientist have tried to find the causes of the crisis; and some major causes have been emphasized are greed, the defection of the free market system, and the lack of prudent regulation and supervision. This essay will focus on the global imbalances, one of the most important causes of the current economic crisis. Many researchers have pointed out that the global imbalances are the root of the recent financial crisis. Portes claims that “the underlying problem in international finance over the past decade has been global imbalances, not greed, poor incentive structures, or weak financial regulation, however egregious and important these may be.” (2).
The financial crisis in 2008 that led to a crisis in the banking sector, and which nearly led to a complete collapse of the economy globally, was not only caused by changes in the regulatory, regulation and legislation oversight, but also fiscal and monetary policies. Many believe that, expansion of excesses monetary and irresponsibility of some of the government agencies led to the crisis. According to reports by Taylor (2009), excesses monetary policies were the main cause of the 2008 financial crisis. He reports that, in 2003-2005 the federal reserves held its interest rate target below the well known monetary rules that state that historical experiences should be the base of a good policy. He says that, Federal Reserve tracked their rates according to what worked better in the earlier decades, instead of lowering the rates in order to prevent the crisis.
1.0 The Global Financial Crisis and Its Impact The recent Global Financial Crisis (GFC) initially began with the collapse of credits and financial markets, which caused by the sub-prime mortgage crisis in the US in 2007. The sub-prime mortgages were given to high-risk lenders (with bad credit history) who were in danger of defaulting, which eventually caused a global credit crunch, where the banks were unwilling to lend to each other. In October 2008, the collapse of the major financial institutions and the crash of stock markets marked the peak of this global economic slowdown (Euromonitor International, 2008). Although the origin of the GFC might have been the housing and financial crisis in the US, it affected both developed and developing countries in a devastating way. More specifically, the crisis has destroyed global financial systems and government budges, strike the confident and security of financial markets.
Stelzer, Irwin, “The real action will be at the G2: China and the US”, The Sunday Times, March 29, 2009. http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/columnists/article5993143.ece Mastanduno, Michael, ‘‘System Maker and Privilege Taker: U.S. Power and the International Political Economy’’, World Politics 61, January 2009. Wade, Robert (2008), “Financial Regime Change? New Left Review”, 53, September-October 2008. Zakaria, Fareed, “The Rise of the Rest”, Newsweek, 12 May, 2008.
The financial crisis from 2007 has caused the greatest global economy recession since the Great Depression and also the European sovereign debt crisis. The consequences and cost are enormous. Due to this fact, explanations and responsibilities for financial crisis are searched so that the role of corporate governance and financial engineering is set on the spotlight. The financial crisis has been said to be a case of financial engineering and corporate governance gone wrong. In this paper I will discuss this statement and demonstrate that wrong financial engineering practice and corporate governance effectively caused, or at least in part, the financial crisis.
By 2008, due to the failures of large financial institutions, there were severe liquidity problems within the US banking system. When the housing bubble peaked in late 2007 the values of securities linked to U.S. real estate pricing began to plummet (Stiglitz 55). This was a critical hit to financial institutions across the globe. Questions began to arise amongst consumers and members of government alike in regards to the solvency of banks due to poorly performing loans and mortgages, which in turn led to declines in the availability of credit. The complete loss of investor confidence impacted stock markets globally.
1. Introduction 1.1. Background The Financial crisis was triggered in 2006 when US housing market began to crumble as the housing price reached their highest point after years of speculative price increase; many house owners defaulted on their loans, particularly subprime mortgagers (Archarya et al., 2009). Starting in mid-2007, the outburst of US housing bubble in the subprime mortgage leads to the global financial crisis that has been often so called ‘Great Recession’ (Verick and Islam, 2010). Archarya et al.
The inevitable collapse of the housing bubble as those securities commenced in decreasing value, banks in the U.S. and in foreign countries began to fail. The total cost incurred by the global financial crisis is estimated by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) at $11.9 trillion, while estimates of global bank losses currently stand at $3.4 trillion. (Evans, Jones and Steven. 2009) It was these failures which spurred systemic banking crises in many countries around the world. US Congress Oversight Panel report (August 2009), “Troubled assets were at the heart of the crisis that gathered steam during the last several years and erupt... ... middle of paper ... ...conomic Development .
The roots of the financial crisis can be traced back to the property asset bubble in the US between 1997 and 2006. This asset bubble was enabled by a poorly regulated subprime mortgage industry and the assumption that property prices would continue to rise. The collapse of the property bubble and subsequent foreclosures led to many financial institutions suffering huge losses due to their exposure to the subprime market through a series of innovative and complex investment vehicles. While these investments carried extra risk, they also gave the opportunity for massive short term returns, and the move to these riskier and more complicated financial investments may have been facilitated by a ‘too big to fail’ mentality by many US financial institutions. The collapse of the property bubble and uncertainty in the markets led to a run by depositors and a sudden loss of funding for banks day to day activities.