While the results of one study found women to make up 53% of entry level employees, they found that women only made up 19% of top executive positions, such as CEO or CFO, in the same company (Harvard Business Review Staff). These statistics reveal that women are getting cut off at lower level positions with no basis for the actions of those making the decisions other than gender. Known as the glass ceiling, this phenomenon plagues working women. Not only are women denied high-level jobs, but they are also denied the same payment as men for the same work. This wage gap continues to rage on.
Out to work: a history of wage-earning women in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982). Web. 26 May 2015. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2150229?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Lunbeck, Elizabeth. "The 'girl problem': female sexual delinquency in New York, 1900-1930," Journal of American History; June 1996, Vol. 83 Issue 1 Web.
Women Executives Even though women constitute 40% of all executives and administrative posts (up from 24% in 1976), they are still restricted mostly to the middle and lower positions, and the senior levels of management are almost entirely male domains. A 1990 study of the top Fortune 500 companies by Mary Ann Von Glinow of the University of Southern California, showed that "women were only 2.6% of corporate officers (the vice presidential level up)." Of the Fortune Service 500, only 4.3% of the corporate officers were women - even though women are 6l% of all service workers. Even more disturbing is that these numbers have "shown little improvement in the 25 years that these statistics have been tracked". (University of Michigan, Korn/Ferry International).
Only in six states are there female governors, and members of city hall are predominately male in 92 out of the 100 largest cities in the continental U.S. Since the 1970’s the percentage of women in high political offices had been increasing, but in the last several election cycles there has been no net increase. The United States House of Representatives has plateaued in its percentage of female representatives and Senate suffered the first net decrease in the percentage of women serving since 1979. In terms of progress of women’s representation in politics, the United States is falling behind many nations. As of 2011, 90 nations have a higher percentage of women in office.
Gender inequality is defined as the disparity in status of power and prestige between people who identify as women and men. According to the most recent statistics from the U.S. Census, women earn just 77 percent of what men earn for the same amount of work. In 2013 alone there are only 23 women CEO’s in Fortune 500 companies; accounting for only 4.6 percent of Fortune 500 companies. For decades women have fought to stand next to men in the workpla... ... middle of paper ... ...asing popular in last couple of years. Women are educated are now making their own rules by creating their own companies instead of working for one.
Women have a harder time getting into high level positions. “Women make up only 21 of the S&P’s 500 CEOs,” (Berman). This has happened because the media has set in place stereotypes that it is wrong for women to have high level positions. It is getting better, in 2013 women chief financial officers increased 35 percent at large U.S. companies from 2012 (Frier and Hymowitz). The job market for men and women is still unfair but it is starting to get equal.
I am going to discuss the problem of the glass ceiling. In 2011, an astounding number of 1.5 million women brought a class action lawsuit against Wal-Mart, on the basis of sex discrimination; it was the largest sex-discrimination suit in history. Bobbi Miller, one of the plaintiffs, was annually earning thousands of dollars less than her male coworker, who had considerably less experience than her. Other plaintiffs were Wal-Mart employees who were constantly passed up for promotion; when they asked about it, they were told that a management position is a “man’s job.” Cheryl Phipps, another employee, stated, “We seek justice for ourselves and all Walmart women workers in this region who have been denied equal pay and opportunities for promotion” (Cavaliere). These allegations demonstrate the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling, the inevitable barrier preventing women from attaining top management positions.
This barrier of blocking women and minorities from reaching top echelons reveals the extent of the problems faced by women. There is no doubt that the glass ceiling continues to plague talented women who struggle to reach the top positions in their career. The glass ceiling is also a problem for top management of corporations that need to recognize the changes in the modern age. By following the traditional way of hiring and promoting individuals, corporations are missing out on the vast talent pool of women. By opening higher management positions to women, corporations stand to benefit from the creativity, more interactional, more participative, and knowledge of women who will offer a unique perspective to growing corporations.
In Europe, women make up only 12% of positions on boards in the top 300 European companies according to research by Russell Reynolds and the European Professional Women's Network1. Similarly, with only 16.1% of board positions held by women in U.S. Fortune 500 companies, debates about whether similar policy should be implemented in the U.S. arise as well2. Although mixed boards might make better decisions than monolithically male ones do, I believe that the quota system not only is a bad solution targeting a wrong problem, but also have potential drawbacks that could undermine the efficiency and quality of corporate governance. In this paper, I will first identify the underlying causes of the gender imbalance in the boardroom to explain why quota is not the right solution to the problem, and then examine the benefits and drawbacks of quotas to argue that quotas actually undermine value creation, thus shouldn’t be implemented in the U.S. and other countries. I.
Since 1989, women have comprised 53 percent of the Russian population reflecting the WWII casualties. Women's share of the labor force decreased somewhat after the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, when they comprised 53 percent of the labor force. At 51 percent in 1995, it is still among the highest in the world, and most women continue to be employed outside the home. During the Soviet era (1917-1991), women were employed in all sectors of the economy. Today, as then, some sectors have a proportionately higher share of women than men, such as trade and food services, information, health and social welfare, education, culture and the arts, science, credit, insurance and finance, and state administration.