Schopenhauer, Arthur. Essays and Aphorisms. Trans. R. J. Hollingdale. New York, Penguin Books, 1970.
Charles Schribner's Sons, New York: 1970. Trask, David F. "The End of the American Dream," Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby: The Novel, The Critics, The Background. Ed. Henry D. Piper. Charles Schribner's Sons, New York: 1970.
The first of the political philosophers was Thomas Hobbes who first introduced the idea that the monarch ruled not by “divine right” but through the consent of the people. This was a radical idea with ramifications that are reflected in the great changed Great Britain made to to their government in the 17th century. Through a series of two violent civil wars between the monarchy and Parliament and the bloodless civil war known as the Glorious Revolution, Parliament was granted the authority to, in essence, “check” the power of the monarchy. The internal shifts of power in Great Britain and the savvy foreign policy skills demonstrated by the British in much of the conflict happening in continental Europe can be credited with England’s rise to power. By the Glorious Revolution of the 17th century, England was already miles ahead of their European brethren.
The Parliament, albeit limited in power, acquired de facto power in previous centuries, making them a significant group in the kingdoms. Due to their power, the king could only adjust taxations with their approval. During the Thirty Years War, Charles I desired to intervene, which would require heavy taxation in order to make up for foreign expenditure. His decision to appoint an unpopular Duke as a commander of the English army led to further hostility and criticism from the Parliament, that were deemed as the voice of a society1. In backlash, Charles I dissolved the Parliament and assembled another, which unfortunately for him, created the Petition of Rights that he was forced to sign2.
These changes were due to a lengthy political crisis and an acute state of emergency, which resulted from the last of the Karl Gustav wars against Sweden in 1657... ... middle of paper ... ... did, to his sole rule, then they were playing into his hands. They ultimately agreed. With the reduction of the power of the nobility, Sweden returned to the political structure of the early Vasa kings. The King was by the grace of God the all-powerful ruler and commander of Sweden and it's territories. The wars of the mid- 17th century led the Scandinavian states to centralize monarchial power by creating problems within each society.
Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby: The Novel, The Critics, The Background. Ed. Henry D. Piper. Charles Schribner's Sons, New York: 1970. Trask, David F. "The End of the American Dream," Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby: The Novel, The Critics, The Background.