The FourTypes of Pollution

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Earth today is polluted and suffered greatly from irresponsible human’s activities and has become crucial issue for a long time. Pollution is a state where environment is being dirty. Holdgate (1979) proposed that pollution is the introduction of matters or energy into the environment by man that caused adverse impacts. There are four well-known types of pollution which are air, water, soil, and noise pollution (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1). First pollution exist is air pollution. Both natural and human is the cause of air pollution. Burning fossil fuel, household and emission from industries are pollutions that human-based while natural phenomenon such as volcanic eruptions, thunderstorm and phytoplankton blooming is natural air pollution. According to Kemp (1990) the weak carbonic acid such as nitric acid which provides sufficient energy for the synthesis of oxides of nitrogen is produced because of the absorption of carbon dioxide by atmospheric water and during thunderstorms. From the ocean, during phytoplankton seasonal bloom period, they emit sulphur and takes form of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) which is oxidized into SO2 and methane sulphonic acid (MSA) .Volcanic eruptions or forest fires also release sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere to provide the essential component for the creation of sulphuric acid. In modern atmospheric pollution, acid rain is the common effects that occur. Human activities can produces acid precipitation that differs from natural acid precipitation in both origins and quality. A solution with a pH of 4.0 is ten times more acidic than one of pH 5.0 and a solution of 3.0 pH is one hundred times more acidic than one of pH 5.0 (Kemp , 1990). Besides that, global warming also is the effe... ... middle of paper ... ...ater pollution. New Delhi: A P H Publishing Corporation Chhokar, K. B., Pandya, & M., Raghunathan, M. (Eds.). (2004). Understanding environment. New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd. Goines, L., Hagler, L. (2007). Noise pollution: A modern plaque. Southern Medical Journal, 100, 287-294. Holdgate, M. W. (1979). A perspective of environmental pollution. UK, Cambridge University Press. Kemp, D. (1990). Global enviromental issues. USA, Canada: Routledge Morel, S., Taylor, R. & Lyle, D. (1997). A review of health effects of aircraft noise. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 21, 221-236. Suter, A. H. (1991). Noise and its effects. Retrieved from http://www.nonoise.org/library/suter/suter.htm U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) (2009). National Handbook of Conservation Practices. Retrieved from http://www.nrcs.usda.gov

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