There are several historical reasons for the astonishing spread of Islam throughout Arabia and beyond after Muhammad’s death in 632 AD. These factors basically depended in degree of which Islamic leader, empire, or dynasty was in power. Although the religious sincerity and zeal of the Islamic powers varied greatly, some reflection of the Muslim’s religious belief in past was needed to internally stabilize the Islamic world. The ways in which Islam spread was due to ingenuity of the Islamic powers and regular reliance of Islamic leaders on the religious principles established by the Prophet as well as the early Caliphs. The spread of Islam would not have occurred without Prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islamic religion, who succeeded to win support for his spiritual and political status within Arabia in the early seventh century.
Can Democracy really function in an Islamic society? Some say yes, some say no. But the answer doesn’t seem to be quite so black and white. The Muslim countries in the world today are all different, and all have or have had different relationships with democracy. In order to better understand the answer to this question, we must look at some of the factors that influence the relationship between Islam and Democracy.
“Jews.” Encyclopedia International. Vol. 10. Philippines: Lexicon Publications, 1980. “The Spread of Islam to India and Southeast Asia, 711-1400.” http://galenet.gale.com Strack, Hermann L. “Anti-Semitism.” Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.
1939. "Custom and the Muslim Law in British India". Transactions of the Grotius Society. 25: 89-118. Schacht, Joseph.
Faced with these apparent contradictions, many analysts in the West have decided that fundamentalism defies all generalization. Instead they have tried to center discussion on its supposed “diversity.” For this purpose, they seek to establish systems of classification by which to sort out fundamentalist movements and leaders. The basic classification appears in much different terminological appearance, in gradations of subtlety. “We need to be careful of that emotive label, `fundamentalism’, and distinguish, as Muslims do, between revivalists, who choose to take the practice of their religion most devoutly, and fanatics or extremists, who use this devotion for political ends.”  Fundamentalist Islam remains an enigma precisely because it has baffled all attempts to divide it into tidy categories. “Revivalist” becomes “extremist” (and vice versa) with such rapidity and frequency, that the actual classification of any movement or leader has little prognostic power.
Metcalf, Barbara D. Islam in South Asia in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. Print. Osella, Flippo, and Osella, Caroline. “Introduction: Islamic Reformism in South Asia.” Modern Asian Studies 42, 2/3 (2008): 247-257.
Muslims were pioneers of enlightenment in Europe, but they were certainly not following a system of governance through a popular choice (Lewis 62). Concepts of liberty and freedom were unknown during those days. Nonetheless, the Muslims at large chose to go against their own teachings of sorting out their affairs through consultation and were caught in the web of adopting the rules of the West (Lewis, 57). The reason for the criticism of democracy and secularism in Muslim countries, has often been described in some cases to be the influence of the fundamentalist approach of Islam. In fact, the very word “secular” is foreign to the political vocabulary of Islam and exists only in the modern Islamic languages as a term that is not entirely accepted (Lewis, 61).
Middle East Policy, IV (3), 30-39. 21. Norton, A.R. (1999). Rethinking the United States policy toward the Muslim world.
“The New World Order and the Tempo of Militant Islam.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. Volume 24, Issue 1 (1997. 5), 5-24. O'Brien, Robert, et al. Contesting Glboal Governance.