The First World War
A stalemate developed on the Western Front for four main reasons, one
being that the Schlieffen plan failed, another reason was that the
French were unable to defeat the Germans completely at the Battle of
the Marne, another reasons was the "race to the Channel" and the last
reason was that defending positions was far easier than attacking.
The Schlieffen Plan failed for a number of reasons, one being that
Moltke, the German commander, had altered the balance of the forces so
that the right wing had only three times as many troops as the left
wing and since the right wing was smaller it advanced more slowly than
had been planned. Another reason was that there was more resistance
from the Belgian army and then from British and French forces than had
been expected and this slowed down the right wing and allowed the
British and French forces to retreat and then counter-attack.
Also, the Russians surprised the Germans by attacking in the east;
Moltke then weakened the right wing more by sending troops to fight
the Russians. Another reason was that troops marched more than 30km
every day, and, by early September were exhausted. German
communication lines became extended and ground to a halt, roads were
clogged with refugees and telephone lines (due to sabotage) were out
and so Moltke and his staff were stuck in Luxembourg, not knowing what
was going on with his army.
The Schlieffen plan was failing miserably and the German troops morale
was just as miserable but still, the German army advanced until they
were just 40km from Paris. Blocking their way, however, assembled by
the River Marne were the British and French troops.
The reasons why the French were unable to defeat the Germans
completely at the Battle of the Marne were numerous; one of the
reasons was that no matter how ill spirited the German armies were,
they were still large and well prepared. The French and British troops
however had almost been "thrown" together and in comparison to the
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Bruce Lee once said, “Mistakes are always forgivable, if one has the courage to admit them” (“Bruce Lee”). During World War I, the mistake of Serbia killing the archduke was neither admitted nor forgiven. A series of events brought together the European continent into a bloody and unprecedented war. WWI depicts that a small error or miscommunication leads to a bigger issue and suffering of people as portrayed through the aftereffects of the death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
In the History of the world, human race, there have been many wars between different societies, Cultures, and Countries. Massive blood shed in many of these wars did not stop the coming of new conflicts of interest, peaking to battle. World War Two, one of the biggest war of history brought several countries to battle against each other (1939-1945). The catalyst of this war was one man whom discriminated against other cultures for no reason but to exterminate the Jewish race, known as Adolf Hitler.
By 1917, World War I was the most brutal conflict that had ever been seen on the world stage. It was no longer a war that only involved the European powers, but also countries from all over the world including the United States. During the war, the total number of casualties reached over 37 million and over eight million lives were lost (“WWI Casualty and Death Tables” 1). The extremely high number of casualties was mostly caused by new developments in warfare technology. One of the most well remembered weapons of World War I was mustard gas. Mustard gas caused the soldiers’ skin and internal organs to blister and could be fatal, but could take anywhere from a week to an entire month to claim the lives of its victims from the inside out. Mustard gas has gone down in history as one of the most dreaded elements of the war. This horrific example of chemical weaponry is just one of the numerous amounts of new warfare technology used during the First World War, including other types of chemical weapons, machine guns, bombing techniques, airplanes, submarines and radio.
The Great War , or as it is known now, World War One was a global conflict fought between the Allied Powers ; Great Britain, France, Russia, and the United States along will other smaller nations and the Central Powers ; Germany, Austria – Hungary, Turkey/Ottoman Empire and other small nations from 1914 to 1918. World War One began from a series of tumultuous events, that in turn affected the balance of alliances that had been made between countries at that time in the world.
Many historical events took place in the 20th century that will be remembered forever, but the one occurrence that everyone knows of and will forever be remembered was World War Two. World War Two, the greatest tragedy that has ever happened on the face of the earth, the genocide of Jewish people, a complete nightmare. When people think of WW2, many of the time the image of “those poor Jewish people” comes to mind. Many ask themselves how this could have happened. It just doesn’t make sense to them. Did people around the world at the time of WW2 have these kinds of deliberations? If they did have this kind of reflection then how did six million people perish? During the time leading up to the outbreak of World War II, the Western Press consistently carried numerous reports of the German's anti-Jewish policies and their purposeful victimization of the Jews living in Nazi Germany as well as the annexed territories. The general public cannot claim that they did not know what was going on, that they were uninformed. Whether or not they chose to believe it however, is a completely different story. The public were indeed outraged in many of the cases but the governments of the major European democracies felt that it was not for them to intervene for they felt that the Jewish problem classified as an internal affair within a sovereign state. The attempt to discover what exactly the people around the world did to save the Jewish race is not going to be an easy task but it is going to be a worthwhile one which should uncover a lot of unknown facts to many people.
The U.S. in 1910 was a society where racial segregation was the norm. The Jim Crow laws of segregation were enacted between 1876 and 1965 in America segregating many if not all, public places for whites and blacks. African Americans were treated inferiorly and with no respect. World War I erupted in 1914, sending millions of soldiers from America to Europe. African Americans were sent along side Caucasians to fight in World War I due to there not being enough white soldiers in the military. Many African Americans felt as if they needed to prove their loyalty, respect and earn equality in America by battling in this war. African American soldiers being sent to the war wanted to prove their worthy of citizenship to America. WWI allowed a unique and significant opportunity for African Americans.
During World War One, the role of airplanes and how they were used changed greatly. At first planes were only used for sport, but people started realize that not only could airplanes be useful but they could even influence an outcome of the war greatly. Soon the war was filled with blimps, planes, and tethered balloons. By the end of the war, planes became a symbol of fear, but they were not always treated with such respect. In the time leading up to the war, the general feeling about planes was, they were a sneaky, unfair tactic that should not be used in warfare.
Often times the Second World War over shadows the First World War when it comes to discussing a total war because the First World War may be considered a limited war. A limited war has specific goals while a total war involves the entire nation and its destruction. An examination of pre-1914 events and events that occurred from 1914 to1918 reveal the ways in which the First World War was a total war.
Imagine, it's 1939 and you're sitting at home with your family when you hear screaming outside, you open the door to see what is going on and, BANG! your dead. On September 1, 1939 less than one year after the Munich Agreement, Adolf Hitler invaded Poland. His goal was to eliminate all of the Jews. Britain and France promised to help Poland but Britain was too far away for their Air Force to help and France was too afraid to help because they were afraid of the Germans. Poland had very little Navy and Air Force to fight the Germans. Poland was also invaded by the Soviet Union at the same time so their military was too small to fight the Germans and the Soviet Union. The Warsaw was taken over on September 27, and organized resistance was over by October 5(O'Neill 268). This invasion started World War II. France, Russia, England, and the United States formed what was called the Allied forces to fight against the Nazis. Germany joined with Italy and Japan and they were the Axis alliance to fight against the Allied forces (Strahinich 16-17).
Sister Claire Evelyn Trestrail was the eldest of five being born on the 10th of December, 1877 in Clare, South Australia. Trestrail served in the First World War as a nurse following in her mother’s footsteps who was a trained nurse, Acting Matron of King Edward Hospital in Perth and also had involvement within the Red Cross and the Saint John’s Ambulance Services. Trestrail’s younger siblings also had involvement within the First World War with her two younger brothers; John Henry and Amarald Glen, serving in the royal Flying Corps and respectively, 1 Machine Battalion. Amarald was also presented with a Military Medal for Gallantry at Villaret. Sister Ella also served as a nurse, got married, but tragically returned as an amputee. It was only her youngest sister Amy who did not serve during the war.
During W.W.I the Austrian wore the pike gray 1909 pattern tunic and trousers. They have three white stars on the collar which indicate Sergeants rank. Some have leather gaiters worn by mountain troops; others wore the ordinary trousers with the integral gaiter which fastened around the ankle with two buttons. Men and women wore tunics made of khaki serge flannel or cord. Most men, and some women, also wore leather cartridge pouches and a slouched hat. Women were seen wearing long, more fuller skirts. Blouses usually had a high neck line and the sleeves were full length. Women also wore their hair longer but usually pulled it back into a bun or pony tail. Fashions were very conservative. On the Eastern Front, German infantry wore white coats with fur on the inside. They did this for warmth and camouflage. They wore the field gray cap with black/white and red at the top, and state blockade on the band. The band was red for infantry, black for rifles and artillery, and brown for machine gun battalions. The German Army uniform began to change in 1915. They went from buttoned cuffs to a simple turned back cuff. During W.W.I. tobacco was not frequently used, but drinking tea and whisky was used more for entertainment and relaxation. During W.W.II. materials were scarce. Skirt hems were much shorter and skirts were more form fitting. The clothes could not have any cuff, ruffles or flap pockets. Pants could be no more than 19 inches wide. There were also shortages of fabric such as silk, rayon and nylon. American women were starting to become fashionable by wearing military hats, men's pants, and patches. Women also stopped wearing large jewelry such as bangles and beads. Short haircuts were considered much safer at work and less trouble. The short hairstyles became popular during the war. Men's suits were rationed and each man was only allowed one suit per year. Men were allowed to only have four cigarettes per day. The styles during W.W.I were not as conservative as the styles during W.W.II. The styles during W.W.II. indicate a shortage of products which mandated the fashion industry during that era for both men and women. The changing of the fashions from W.W.I. to W.W.II. show that men and women were becoming more in tune with fashion. Styles were not as conservative as they used to be.
The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the extent to which the Allied success in overcoming German submarine warfare and land invasions in the first world war can be attributed to Britain’s military tactics and resources. The method in this investigation is to first explain what Britain had that could have led it to contribute to Allied success. This includes an evaluation of different British tactical procedures such as ship camouflage, cartography and early naval operations in particular events from the war. Then, Britain’s contribution will be compared against an economic and military viewpoint of the success of the Allies in World War One. This investigation will not discuss all of Germany’s land invasions during the war nor will it discuss the situation of all of Britain’s allies. Instead, Britain’s contribution to the war will be compared with that of the United States.
World War 1 World War 1 was called “The Great War”, “The war to end all wars”, and “The first modern war”. It has many causes and a few repercussions and I will describe them in detail. The most widely known reason for the start of World War 1 was the assassination of the Arch Duke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary in the Serbian capital of Sarajevo. The ArchDuke was there to talk to the Serbian leaders about peace on the Balkan Peninsula. After a Serbian was arrested for the assassination, Austria-Hungary pulled out of the peace talks and declared war on Serbia.