Descartes three skeptical arguments pose a few objections to the plausibility to each step. Step one of Meditation One tells us to doubt everything that can be doubted deriving from our senses. Descartes argued that his senses have more than once deceived him, therefore he cannot completely trust his senses. Descartes method to construct an entirely new foundation to set his beliefs on, is called the method of doubt. The method of doubt suggest that in order to find out which beliefs are stable and which are not, we first have to pretend that everything we know is questionable.
He says that all that he has accepted as truth, until now, has come to him through his senses and further goes on to say that these senses are not trustworthy in the sense as they have deceived him before and, for this reason, are not to be trusted. He asserts that our senses deceive us by referring to dreams. This is because, in our dreams, senses are still our most trusted source of judging truth, yet none of it really exists, questioning reality to the extent of thinking hat he might actually be dreaming instead of sitting by the fireplace. Dreams... ... middle of paper ... ...the argument. Myself, I believe that we all have the right and choice to think as we please.
Whatever I have up till now accepted as most true I have collected either from the senses or through the senses. But from time to time I have found that the senses deceive, and to never trust completely those who have deceived us even once. (Meditations on First Philosophy). There was a question which was referred to by 'I'? To answer this question Descartes suggested another round of doubt.
This skepticism also implies that doubt can free us from prejudices, enabling the mind to escape the deception of the senses, and possibly discover a truth which is beyond doubt. The first and main deception in Descartes opinion has evolved from sense perception "What ever I have up till now accepted as most true I have acquired either from the senses or through the sense. But from time to time I have found that the senses deceive, and it is prudent never to trust completely those who have deceived us even once"(1:18). At the root of our beliefs, Descartes argues, lie the experiences we gain from our senses, because these are sometimes mistaken, as in the case of mirages or objects which appear small in the distance, and because of this he will now forfeit all of his most reliable information . More importantly it may be to follow in the steps of Plato and require knowledge that is certain and absolute ( Prado 1992 ).
Although certainty is blessing because it provides us warmth, comfort and secure, it is more of a great danger because it gives out false information and tricks our mind into believing something that is not real or true. Therefore, I am fully convinced by Gould’s essay because I completely doubt what people observe or remember since memories does not provide certainty.
Mill asserts that the reason why liberty of opinion is so often in danger is that in practice people tend to be confident in their own rightness, and excluding that, in the infallibility of the world they come in contact with. Mill contends that such confidence is not justified, and that all people are hurt by silencing potentially true ideas. After presenting his first argument, Mill looks at possible criticisms of his reasoning and responds to them. First, there is the criticism that even though people may be wrong, they still have a duty to act on their "conscientious conviction." When people are sure that they are right, they would be cowardly not to act on that belief and to allow doctrines to be expressed that they believe will hurt mankind.
Descartes looked at history and discovered that facts that were thought to be completely true actually were later found to be wrong. Descartes found that facts can stand alone in the test of doubt and these facts can be used as fundamentals of knowledge. There is a close connection between knowing something to be true and being certain of it. Descartes, as well as many other philosophers, have maintained the belief that knowledge and certainty go together. This leads to the question, if everything is certain, then a person cannot have knowledge at all.
Descartes declares that he must put an end to those false beliefs before he can come by any true knowledge. He goes on to explain that he does not exactly have to prove his beliefs to be false, but needs to convince himself to avoid having beliefs that are not certain. He truly believes that he can find some doubt in every one of his false beliefs. As a result, what Descartes has accepted as the truth he has learned from his senses, and senses can often mislead someone. Although he believes that his senses can and do deceive him, there are still things that he doesn’t allow himself to doubt, even though they were learned with those very senses.
Along the way he cannot control his temper and this personality flaw leads him to his our destruction. Blinded by ignorance and pride drives him to accuse Creon of trying to overthrow him. Sophocles use the blindness of Tiresias to point out the great power behind wisdom and understand through Oedipus situation. He sends the message that wisdom, knowledge are important aspects of life one should have because without them we are we will forced down a path of suffering and destruction. Humans have power when they have knowledge and insight but that power is liable to error because in reality we are all flawed with blindness to the truth and our own destruction can be an inner force that eats us out until we are forced to face the truth.
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