Defensin (DF) is a newer cytolytic antimicrobial peptide having molecular weight of 4 kDa having antimicrobial activity against wide range of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The present work describes method development of recombinant Defensin protein using internal standard Bovine serum albumin (BSA). A simple, precise and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for quantification of Defensin protein using BSA as an internal standard using Enable Q C18 column (250mm x 4.6 mm I.D, 5μm particle size 300ºA) as column, water: acetonitrile (60:40 v/v) with Trifluoroacetic acid 0.1% as mobile phase, flow rate of 1ml/min and detection was carried out at 280 nm. The retention time of BSA and Defensin was 2.342 and 5.279 min respectively. The linearity range was found to be 10-50 μg/ml, co-relation coefficient was found to be 0.999. The limits of detection and quantitation of the method were 1.010 and 3.062 μg/ml respectively. So, the developed method was accurate, precise and robust.
1. What do your observations tell you about the presence of glucose, starch, and IKI in the dialysis bag and the beaker before and after the experiment?
Approximately 800,000 people under 18 are currently diagnosed with autism. This
number is increasing as more screening has become available, and there is no cure in sight. Autism is a disorder that is characterized by frequent deficits in communication and social interaction, a lack of trust in others, and generally poor social skills. However a new and promising treatment is arising in the form of the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin is a hormone that is found in mammals that has various functions.
The body has a buffer system that mixes of a weak acid and a weak base to resist changes in pH, it is the least efficient but it is quick. It includes buffers such as bicarbonate, phosphate, and a few proteins that help too. The respiratory system place a part too, it is a bit slower but it is more effective than the buffer system. The kidney secretion of hydrogen ions, is the most effective but is the slowest. It lowers the pH of the blood and raises pH of the urine.
If the pH in the urine is examined to be at 7, then the pH will be in a normal chemical reaction.
Winter, S. D., Pearson, J. R., Gabow, P. A., Schultz, A. L. and Lepoff, R. B. 1990. The fall of the serum anion gap. Archives of internal medicine, 150 (2), p. 311.
VII. Vasopressin and Faces
Vasopressin has long been implicated in the memory of faces and is thus useful for research on recall and recognition of faces. Because of the role vasopressin plays in relationships, it is important to consider its value in affecting romantic relationships and perception of romantic partner's faces. In a study by Thompson and colleagues (2004) researchers looked at how vasopressin administration affects responses to happy, angry and neutral faces in terms of attention, and arousal and physiological measures like corrugator supercilii electromyograms (EMG), heart rate and skin conductance (Thompson, Gupta, Miller, Mills, & Orr, 2004). This was based on previous experiments with the effect of oxytocin on facial perception.
Both labs conducted tested the percent change in mass when osmosis occured. The first lab used dialysis tubes with a variety of sucrose concentrations.
The Effect of pH on the Digestion of Casein by Trypsin
When planning the experiment, the equipment and method had to be well
thought-out in order for the experiment to be accurate and efficient.
Firstly, I have chose to use a 1% trypsin concentration then altered
it to 0.8%, because a higher concentration means more trypsin
molecules in the solution and therefore more enzyme substrate
complexes are likely to occur with the casein in the milk, causing
digestion of the casein to be faster. However, I don’t wantowever
digestion to occur too quickly as I will not be able to analyse the
effect of PH. Therefore, I chose a lower concentration which would
allow me to test the percentage transmission at different PH.
Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts to speed up reactions
without being used up.
Discussion: The results acquired from the experiment have supported the hypothesis. In the first sample, red blood cell in the isotonic solution (NaCl 0.85%) kept its regular shape. This is because when RBC was placed in an isotonic solution, which is the solution has the same concentration of solutes as the cell, water will move into and out of the cell simultaneously and no net effect will be seen. In the second sample, cell shrank, and crenation occurred in the hypertonic solution (NaCl 10%) because the hypotonic solution has a higher osmosis pressure than the cell, water is going to escape from the cell for decreasing the high concentration of solute in the hypotonic solution. Lastly, in the hypertonic solution (NaCl 10%), cell bloated,