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The Expectancy Theory Of Motivation

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The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is a widely accepted explanation tool for evaluating, and encouraging employee behavior in an organization. There are three primary components to how the theory operates; expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Each of these helps determine what motivates a person in any position in a company (Organizational Behavior, 2013). Expectancy is the individual’s perception of whether or not their efforts will produce what they expect, and if they could produce more. Portions of this effort-performance relationship are based on the individuals previous experiences with the task they are given, how difficult it will be to meet the goal of the task, and their level of self-confidence. Several examples of the…show more content…
Meeting or exceeding performance goals can offer greater rewards for the employee, such as overtime, bonuses, additional vacation, or even promotions within the company. Continuing the summary of self-imposed questions: If my output is better, will I be rewarded? In the end, valence brings both expectancy and instrumentality together, as a culmination of the person, their values, goals, and needs. If the employee does not have the want to move into a lofty management position, it will bring down their overall motivation, hindering both what they expect from their work, and what they might be rewarded with. Valence can be affected by organizational ladders, company size, and frequency of hiring practices. A company that frequently goes through layoffs can hinder performance in its employees, unless they have the valence to move to higher positions. If the three key factors in expectancy theory could be quantified in numbers, the proposed equation by Victor Vroom is as such (QuickMBA, 2010):
Motivational Force (MF) = Expectancy × Instrumentality × Valence Managers can use expectancy theory to determine what will motivate their employees, and get better output, at a more efficient
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While not the best option for morale, the company could make a change to how the employee earns, by making pay reliant on quota produced. For example; every day has a set dollar amount for an employee, and for every unit required for quota, it is portioned as a percentage for that dollar amount. If the employee does not make quota, the percentage left over is not included in their paycheck, but since every unit is a percentage, exceeding the quota can reward the employee greatly. Supervisor A also should interview and mingle with their employees more. The portion of the scenario that has Supervisor B having informal discussions with these employees, makes Supervisor A’s poor management style stick out like sore thumb. Parts of the problem might stem from the way Supervisor A treats the employees, and that could be easily corrected by upper management, or by simple training courses for managers and supervisors. The Expectancy Theory of Motivational Force, while subtlety complex due to its interaction with the human condition, is an excellent way to explain motivation in the workplace. With it, we can identify how effort, performance, rewards, and individual goals can encourage growth within an
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