The success of this venture prompted the foreign ministers of six ECSC nations to examine the possibility of further economic integration (Chulalongkorn University, 1999). Hence, in 1957 one the most significant agreements in European economics history, The Treaty of Rome, was signed. The Treaty of Rome’s fundamental goal was to provide for the creation of a common market (Kenwood & Lougheed, 1999:280). The most significant aspect of this treaty was the commitment made by such countries as Belgium, France, West Germany, the Netherlands, Italy and Luxembourg to facilitate the free movement of goods, services and factors of production. Essentially, these European governments sought to eliminate internal trade barriers, create common external tariffs and harmonies member states laws and regulations (Hill, 2001: 233).
INTRODTION After the Second World War, Europe established its week points and the danger coming from nationalisation that had distressed the continent. The idea of the European Union was to gather all leaders from the European states and get them to work together and create a strong union that would diminish the possibility of future wars, although there was a certain ideological groundswell in favour of a United Europe shortly after world war two the European Union did not come in to existence until a later date. The aims of this essay are to discuss the events that were pertained in 1957 to 1993, but in order to understand the developments I have briefly outlined the essential points on the ECSC, which will be again seen through the essay. 1. Historical developments of a United Europe 2.
Thereafter, we must recognize that lately it is more popular for nations to fight for their own established identity rather than to create a new one for the good of maintaining peace in their new state as we have seen in so many Eastern European countries. Therefore, as realists would agree, integration is in reality impossible due to the trend of nations to protect their individual sovereignty and at the fear of losing it, move towards more nationalistic regimes. Liberals believe that nations inherently wish to cooperate as it benefits both actor... ... middle of paper ... ...ative gains. They can never know each other’s intentions, and won’t risk the cooperation if they think they can gain more in the future from conflicting. Furthermore, as in the Balkans or in Russia we have seen how disinclined nations or ethnic groups are to ignore their own unique national identity in order to create a new identity of the newly established state.
In 1951 the Treaty of Paris was signed with the purpose of preventing any future wars and stabilising European economies. This was key to the creation of the EU as this treaty also established the European Coal and Steel Community which meant enemies during WW2 France and Germany were now sharing the production of coal and steel. The Treaty of Paris was signed between France, West Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Italy and Belgium who would also later come together on 25th March 1957 to sign The Treaty of Rome to establish the European Economic Community which would later be renamed to the European Union. The Treaty of Rome was put into force on the 1st January 1958 and helped to establish a European Parliament, a European Court of Justice, a Council of Ministers and a European Commission which were all staffed from member states. All the following European treaties such as The Treaty of Maastricht, Treaty of Amsterdam and Treaty of Nice have built upon the Treaty of Rome to help continue European
Intergration's Role in the Establishment of Peace in Post 1945 Europe As once Winston Churchill stated in his speech in 1946, establishing such a form of European single unity has been considered as a 'desirable' way that Europe should ultimately reach. Although a starting point for the debate in the realm of European integration is the end of Second World War, the European Union of as it is today seems mainly the result of the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. In particular, during the 1950s European integration was often called European federalization, although in discussions about European integration, the meaning of federalism remained obscure in nowadays. Also, there is a view that sees the European union as a purely economic unity. This essay will concern the historical elements that led states into creating the Community.
These “Inner Six” nations thus laid the framework for further integration of other nations within the region and its supranational principles were what led to the creation of the European Economic Community in 1957, further assimilating the European countries’ economies. The creations of these communities for economic purposes were meant to promote cooperation amongst European nations to prevent the further outbreak of violence which had subsided with the end of WWII. Through these general agreements of economic importance came further integration through the creation of more agreements throughout the 1960s, such as the abolishment of customs duties amongst their borders, creating free trade and border trade tax pacts among the Inner Six and across their borders to other signatory nations. The first period of enlargement occurred following the adoption of several agreements and norms amongst the nations of Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom in January of 1973 followed by Greece in January of 1981. The Inner Six nations had proliferated their agreements amongst each other to 4 other nations, bringing the total number ... ... middle of paper ... ...2013, March).
In doing so, it began a global discussion of the use of federalism to hold regions, and in particular colonies, together. In September of 1946, Winston Churchill made a speech at Zurich University in which he called for a "'United States of Europe'" (www.euro.ecb.int); clearly, this was not a new idea. Churchill thought that by uniting Europe, they would be able to put an end to Europe's decline economically in markets that the United States was quickly taking over.
The source reflects a perspective that supports illiberalism. It suggests that the government must protect its citizens in time of crisis but it mentions that in times of stability people will be free from unnecessary government intervention. It does not however suggest that people should be free from unnecessary government intervention in times of crisis. The illiberal view opposing the principles of liberalism, suggests that governments should use unnecessary intervention in times of crisis and so does the source (indirectly as mentioned above). But who can confirm that the government will only intervene and suspend civil liberties in times of crisis?
The current Euro crisis signals the importance of transparent government transactions, and the need to have economic guidelines tailor-made for different countries with stark contrast in their economic foundations. As for the future of the Euro, its future may appear bleak but with major economic reforms, the Euro could make a recovery. As mentioned before, European countries understood the daunting task of becoming global political powers following World War II, especially with such fragile economies. The creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951 stood as “the most significant step ever taken toward European integration” and undoubtedly laid the foundation for what is today the European Union (Alessi, 2011, p. 1). The ECSC revealed the urgency Europe possessed when it came to creating an economically unified entity, and with successfully ensured that major economic centers did not fall under the control of France and Germany.
Kennan believed that the U.S. needed to counter the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe with an alliance in Western Europe. This perceived threat and the idea of great power parity between the U.S. and the Soviet Union led to the adoption of realist approaches to U.S. grand strategy. Kennan’s suggestions were incorporated into the 1947 Truman Doctrine, which later led to the defensive realist strategy of containment being adopted as a Cold War grand strategy. In 1948, the Marshall Plan added an economic aspect to the containment strategy. The Marshall Plan was an economic aid program designed to help rebuild European economies damaged by WWII, while helping prevent the spread of Soviet influence in Western Europe.