The Evolution of Life Expectancy and C.R. Bard

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According to the Central Intelligence Office of the United States of America, in 2010 world life expectancy at birth was 67.2 years. This number is more than double that of years of life expectancy at birth in the early 20th century, which was reported as 31 years. This increase in life expectancy is a direct outcome of acceleration in medical advancements and breakthroughs during the early and late 20th century. A greater understanding of disease diagnosis, treatment, and cure has been a result of often intersecting advancements in biology, chemistry, microbiology, physiology, pharmacology, and medical technology. Attributing to longer life expectancy and better life quality has been the numerous advancements in medical technology or medical devices. Food and Drug Administration, which is the United States federal agency responsible for regulating medical devices defines a medical device as is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or similar or related article that is used to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or other conditions, and does not achieve its purposes through chemical action within or on the body .

Prior to 1900’s medical technology was limited to a few, albeit important medical breakthroughs. These breakthroughs included the stethoscope, eyeglasses, using diethyl ester as anesthesia, discovery of x-rays, and the flexible catheter. Prior to 1752, tubes inserted through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine from the body known as catheters were rigid and hard until Benjamin Franklin revamped traditional catheters by constructing them with flexible tubing. This improved flexible catheter resulted in more ease and less patient discomfort. Today catheters are thin flexible tube used to numerous t...

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