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I. Introduction: Neurological disorders are complex in nature and often the least understood. Given the recent boom in imaging technology and other diagnostic methods, it is now possible to see more clearly into the scope of neurological development and accurately determine the etiology of these diseases. One of such disorders is Autism; a multifactorial condition impairing normal brain development. It affects many aspects of development, including social behavior, cognitive ability and communication skills1 and is commonly diagnosed in children before the age of three1.
Autism spectrum disorders are a common neural developmental brain condition (Cheng et al., 2010). It does not have unifying neurobiological or pathological etiology (Geschwind& Levitt, 2007) .It characterized by impaired social interaction and communication skills and restricted repetitive behavior (Johnson & Myers, 2007). Medical condition such as mental retardation, chromosomal anomalies and seizures are often appear with autism (Casanova, 2007). During first 3 years of childhood, these major symptoms are revealed (Casanova, 2007). Autism is one of three recognized condition and the other two know as Asperger’s syndrome (Levy, Mandell, & Schultz, 2009).
Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is behavioral and social communication impairment. It is a broad-based neurodevelopment or brain-based disorder that is the result of genetic events that occur prior to birth with widespread effects on cognitive and socio-emotional development (Geschwind, 2009). Scientist’s aren’t certain about what causes autism, but it’s generally accepted that it is caused by abnormalities in brain structure or function, genetics/heredity, or environmental factors. Studies have found several irregularities in many regions of the brain, and abnormal levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters in the brain. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) autism can result from the disruption of normal brain development early in fetal development caused by defeats in genes that control brain growth and regulate how brain cells communicate with each other.
Autism's Effects on Development and Education Autism is a behavioral syndrome present from early life and defined by deficient social interaction, language and communication, and play. At one time thought by some to be psychodynamically determined, it is now clear that autism represents physiologic dysfunction of one or more undefined brain systems. In addition to characteristic autistic features, many autistic people display a variety of other signs such as attention deficits, mental deficiency, and seizures that are not specific to autism and that denote dysfunction in other brain systems (Bristol 1991). Variations in symptomatology and prognosis among autistic people depend on both the severity and the extent of the underlying brain dysfunction. There is little information about the pathology of autism, owing to the small number of brains examined.
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