This machine encouraged a minute group of scientist to invest thoughts into the possibility of building an electronic brain. In 1956 Dartmouth University held a conference regarding the further study of AI. In that conference a number of scientists believed that there would be a machine as intelligent
So in the late 1950s, scientists shifted from trying to exploit the capabilities of computers to trying to emulate the human brain. (Daniel Crevier, 1994) Ross Quillian at Carnegie Mellon wanted to try to program the associative aspects of human memory to create better NLP programs. (Daniel Crevier, 1994) Quillian's idea was to determine the meaning of a word by the words around it. For example, look at these sentences: After the strike, the
Financial Analysis of Oracle Corp INTRODUCTION Background and History Oracle Corporation is a technology company that supplies software for the use of information management. They develop, manufacture, market and distribute computer software that helps other corporations manage their data so they can better grow and prosper. In 1977, Larry Ellison, Bob Miner, and Ed Oates founded System Development Laboratories. After being inspired by a research paper written in 1970 by an IBM researcher titled “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks” they decided to build a new type of database called a relational database system. The original project on the relational database system was for the government (Central Intelligence Agency) and was dubbed ‘Oracle.’ They thought this would be appropriate because the meaning of Oracle is source of wisdom.
These two inventions helped the development of AI by serving as a means of processing data. In the 1950s, Norbert Wiener made an observation on feedback theory, that all intelligent behavior is the result of feedback machines. The best example of a feedback machine would be a thermostat, which records the temperature in the room and compares it to the wanted temperature, and then changes the heat based on the difference between the two. Also in 1950, Alan Turing developed the Turing Test. A person asks another human, called the foil, and a computer questions via keyboard and screen, then try to tell which one is the computer.
Artificial Intelligence and its Uses Artificial intelligence is defined as the ability of a machine to think for itself. Scientists and theorists continue to debate if computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point. The generally accepted theory is that computers do and will think more in the future. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years because of the advances in computer architecture. As AI advances, human beings are using it to help with some problems that use AI.
Quick development of neural networks promotes concept of the pattern recognition by proposing intelligent systems such as handwriting recognition, speech recognition and face recognition. In particular, Problem of handwriting recognition has been considered significantly during the last decades in the academic and industrial fields by employing types of direct matching. Performance of this recognition has been paying strong attention through developing several schemas and algorithms to learn the machines. In the light of that development, David Shepard invented first modern OCR’s version to read texts in 1951. After few years, this innovation is followed by originating a prototype machine to read upper case characters with speed of a character per minutes (Srihari & Lam 1995).In the same way, many companies, such as IBM, have continued in developing reader systems to challenge problems of character recognition(Lianwen, Kwokping & Bingzheng 1995).
It would then continue to influence those opinions in the years after. It is necessary to look at the development of artificial intelligence in order to put this idea into context. The concept of intelligent and aware constructs began to emerge in the 1950s and 60s as several scientists in many fields came together to discuss the possibilities of advanced computer research. The first major step was a scientific conference at Dartmouth College in 1956. Here, the general concepts and possible paths of research for a.i.
Much like the cell phone, the computer’s role in society has increased drastically. Since society is reliant on technology, it is important to consider the issues that have come up as a consequence of this trust. Because technology has taken over society, it is critical that society is cognizant of the events involved with technology. A famous computer science problem “P vs. NP” examines some of the complications with technology. Problems called “NP” cannot be solved quickly by a computer.
Joseph Licklider worked on a Cold War project called SAGE designed to create computer-based air defense systems against Soviet Union bombers. Lick became increasingly interested in computing thereafter. Coming to the world of computing from a psychology background gave Lick a unique perspective. Computing at the time consisted mainly of batch-processing operations. Large problems would be outlined in advance and operations coded onto paper punch cards that were then fed into computers in large batches.
His initial specifications of URIs, HTTP and HTML were refined and discussed in larger circles as the Web technology spread. In 1994, Tim founded the World Wide Web Consortium at the Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Since that time he has served as the Director of the World Wide Web Consortium which coordinates Web development worldwide, with teams at MIT, at INRIA in France, and at Keio University in Japan.