To an extent we can see evidence that the Northern rebellion was started due to religious reasons. The immediate plan was to reach Mary Stuart and marry her to the Duke of Norfolk and to end the question of who would succeed Elizabeth to the throne. Mary had a strong claim, and if she married nobleman Norfolk who was also Elizabeth's second cousin, then any children they had together would be firmly next in line to the throne. Mary was extremely Anti - protestant, and the Northern Earls hoped if she came to throne, Protestantism would once again be rid of and England would return to Catholic. The actions of the rebels during the rebellion also suggest it occurred for religious reasons.
Out of this conflict came a document known as the Four Gallican Articles, which reaffirmed the throne's supremacy over the pope, even in doctrinal matters. At one time relations between Paris and Rome were so strained that it seemed as though the French church might break away completely from the church in Rome. Louis, however, made some concessions to Rome in order to gain the support of the Roman Catholic church against hostile Protestant forces. Louis persecuted two religious groups in particular. The first of these groups was the Jansenists, a faction of the Catholic church that believed in the doctrine of predestination.
In 1618, the Thirty Years War broke out in Europe. The Catholic southern German states fought against the Protestant northern German states and each side had help from outside powers - the Catholics from Spain and the Protestants from Sweden and France. As Protector of the Protestant faith, it was James' duty to fight for the Protestants, but this would have brought him into direct conflict with the Spanish and almost certainly would have destroyed any chance of Charles' marriage to Isabella, the Spanish princess. James managed to stay out of the war until 1624 after Charles had travelled to Spain to meet Isabella and been fobbed off by the Spanish Court, which Charles took as a personal insult. Foreign issues were of great importance to the reign of James after 1618 but less so before then.
Individuals wanting religious tolerance that was different from the national religion began to cause tension within the country. One of the major religious conflicts between the Protestant and Catholics divided nations through Europe. As the Protestant Reformation spread to England, the tensions between the Protestants and Catholics quickly escalated all over the country. For England, the constant change of rulers altered the nation’s religion from Protestantism to Catholicism. Many people felt conflicted over which religion to practice with the fear of persecution by the crown.
Since she was so young and a female, the Scottish nobility decided that they must make peace with England. Mary would have been betrothed to Henry VIII’s son, the future Edward VI of England, but Scottish Catholics objected this plan since England had separated from the Catholic Church. Since Mary's mother was french, and Scotland had an alliance with France, Mary would be betrothed to Francis, the eldest son of King Henry II and Catherine de Medicis. In November 1558, Henry VIII’s daughter, Elizabeth Tudor, became Queen Elizabeth I of England. Many Roman Catholics considered Elizabeth’s rule to be illegal.
In simple terms Puritans were Protestants who believed the reformation hadn't gone far enough. Russell called them 'hotter' Protestants. A hallmark which put fear into the State was the anti-hierarchical beliefs held by many Puritans. In fact it makes sense to argue that Presbyterianism and Separatism, in principle, posed a threat to the Elizabethan Church and State, due to these anti-hierarchical beliefs. They sought to replace the contemporary system of church and government.
Yet, it can be said that both 'Jansenisms' effectively straddle the border between political and religious theaters. From a religious perspective, Jansenism was initially condemned by the Catholic Church for it's resistance to Molinist reform efforts. When examined in political context, French monarchs appear to suppress the Jansenists in response to the foreign policies of Cardinal Richelieu. The Age of Enlightenment allowed for an excess of new religious and political philosophies, and it was in this environment that Jansenism would return to France. With authority of the monarchy threatened with revolution, the government was no longer able to use the Gallican church as a suppressive instrument.
Henry VIII separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church for selfish reasons. Henry, frustrated by the delays and excuses he received from Pope Clement VII, declared himself the “proctor and supreme head” of the Church of England. This effectively split the Church of England from the Catholic Church. Henry could now affect an annulment to his marriage to Catharine of Aragon. Although the Church England was no longer in compliance with the Roman Catholic Church, it nevertheless, remained Roman Catholic in looks and feel.
A specific example of this were the English Civil Wars. This series of battles “began originally as a dispute over financial matters between the King of England (Charles I) and Parliament, but the underlying issue of this time, concerned the religion of the nation” (Richards 1). The issues over religion led to a split in government creating two groups: the Royalists (those who supported the king and his Anglican ways) and the Roundheads (those who did not). Within the rebellious roundheads, various religious groups surfaced. One of these was the Quakers.
Such abuse of absolute power led to new concepts of power structures, which ultimately led to the development of modern democracy. Such examples include the power struggle of the English and French monarchy, and the independence of the United States. During the rule of Charles I, his decision to outright ignore the Parliament turned him into a controversial figure. Moreover, his marriage to a Roman Catholic princess during a time of turbulence between the Protestants and Catholics (with England being predominantly Protestant) further contributed to his controversies1. The Parliament, albeit limited in power, acquired de facto power in previous centuries, making them a significant group in the kingdoms.