analytical Essay

1063 words

Part I: The Edge of Knowledge Chapter 1: Tied Up with Strings This is the introductory section, where the author, Brian Greene, examines the fundamentals of what is currently proven to be true by experimentation in the realm of modern physics. Green goes on to talk more about "The Basic Idea" of string theory. He describes how physicists are aspiring to reach the Theory of Everything, or T.O.E. Some suspect when string theory is completely understood that it might turn out to become the T.O.E.Part II: The Dilemma of Space, Time, and Quanta Chapter 2: Space, Time, and the Eye of the Beholder In the chapter, Greene describes how Albert Einstein solved the paradox about light. In the mid-1800's James Maxwell succeeded in showing that light was actually an electromagnetic wave.

From this he concluded that light always travels at the speed of light. It never slows down. Einstein asked the question: "What happens if we chase after a beam of light, at light speed?" From reasoning based on Newton's laws of motion, one can assume that the light would appear stationary. But according to Maxwell's theory, light cannot be stationary. Einstein solved this problem through his special theory of relativity.

Greene continues with his explanations of the special theory of relativity.Chapter 3: Of Warps and Ripples Green begins the chapter by describing "Newton's View of Gravity" and continues by discussing the incompatibility of Newtonian Gravity and Special Relativity. The author also talks about how Einstein discovered the link between acceleration and the warping of space and time. Greene also discuses the basic aspects of General Relativity. He later points out how the two theories of relativity effect black holes, the big bang, and the expansion of space.Chapter 4: Microscopic Weirdness This chapter describes, in detail, the workings of quantum mechanics.

The author tells of how waves are effected by quantum mechanic. He also discusses the fact that electromagnetic radiation, or photons, are actually particles and waves. He continues to discuss how matter particles are also matter, but because of their h bar, is so small, the effects are not seen. Green concludes the quantum mechanics discussion by talking about the uncertainty principle.Chapter 5: The need for a New Theory: General Relativity vs.

Quantum Mechanics This chapter compares the theory of general relativity and quantum mechanics. It shows that relativity mainly concerns that microscopic world, while quantum mechanics deals with the microscopic world.

- Analyzes how brian greene examines the fundamentals of what is currently proven to be true by experimentation in the realm of modern physics.
- Explains einstein's conclusion that light always travels at the speed of light, and never slows down. maxwell’s theory says light cannot be stationary.
- Explains greene's explanations of the special theory of relativity in chapter 3: of warps and ripples and chapter 4: microscopic weirdness.
- Analyzes how quantum mechanics effected waves, electromagnetic radiation, or photons, and matter particles. green concludes the discussion by talking about the uncertainty principle.
- Compares the theory of general relativity and quantum mechanics, stating that the two can contradict each other, such as the area around a black hole.
- Describes the suspected length of a string 10-33 centimeters, and how string theory can unite quantum mechanics and relativity.
- Explains how greene tells about how string theory allows for more than three spatial dimensions, nine to be exact.
- Analyzes how greene describes the geometry of space and how it fits in with and is affected by string theory.
- Analyzes how greene describes the five different types of string theory and how current methods of approximation will not be able to complete m-theory.
- Analyzes how greene describes the current model of cosmology, including string theory's view on the big bang, a multiverse, and the possibility of more than one universe.

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- Special and General Relativity Essayexplanatory essayEinstein's theory of relativity is a famous theory, but it's little understood. Essentially, the theory of relativity refers to two different parts of the same theory: special relativity and general relativity. The theory of special relativity was introduced first, and was later considered to be a special case of the more comprehensive theory of general relativity. During the nineteenth century, scientists believed that light is a wave. They reasoned that waves of light need a medium to travel through, so they invented the concept of "ether." Light was thought to transmit through the ether, which stands still while all matter moves through it. In order to measure the earth's speed through the ether, Albert A. Michelson and Edward Morley collaborated on an experiment in 1887. In the experiment, one beam of light took a route against the ether and back while the other was perpendicular to the ether. Michelson and Morley expected to calculate the speed of the earth through the ether, to their surprise, the beams of light completed the course in the same time. However, the well-known Michelson-Morley experiment had failed to detect Earth's motion relative to the ether and no one could explain why. Something was wrong with the traditional understanding of relativity as it applied to light. Within this essay we will further explain both parts of the theory of relativity and their relevance in our world.
#### In this essay, the author

- Explains einstein's theory of relativity, which refers to two different parts of the same theory.
- Introduces the special theory of relativity, which explains how to interpret motion between different inertial frames of reference.
- Explains einstein's theory based on two postulates: the first one states that all physical laws are the same in every inertial frame of reference, and the second one is that the speed of light is constant.
- Explains einstein's proposal that space and time are relative, and that we should not treat time and space differently, but see it as space-time.
- Explains that einstein's formula e=mc2 showed that mass and energy were related. the relationship was proven most dramatically when nuclear bombs released the energy of mass in hiroshima and nagasaki.

797 wordsRead More - Einstein on Quantum Mechanicsexplanatory essayStemming from the first years of the 20th century, quantum mechanics has had a monumental influence on modern science. First explored by Max Planck in the 1900s, Einstein modified and applied much of the research in this field. This begs the question, “how did Einstein contribute to the development and research of quantum mechanics?” Before studying how Einstein’s research contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, it is important to examine the origins of the science itself. Einstein took much of Planck’s experimental “quantum theory” research and applied it in usable ways to existing science. He also greatly contributed to the establishment of the base for quantum mechanics research today. Along with establishing base research in the field, Einstein’s discoveries have been modified and updated to apply to our more advanced understanding of this science today. Einstein greatly contributed to the foundation of quantum mechanics through his research, and his theories and discoveries remain relevant to science even today.
#### In this essay, the author

- Analyzes how einstein's research contributed to the development and research of quantum mechanics.
- Explains that quantum mechanics was pioneered by max planck, who developed the formula e = hv, which is the base for much of the quantum mechanical field.
- Explains that einstein built further upon the foundation established by planck in using his theory of a quantum of energy for his experiments with the photoelectric effect.
- Explains that einstein's work had a huge impact on the development of quantum mechanics.
- Explains that einstein's contributions to quantum mechanics have helped scientists make great strides in the application of quantum theory to the world.
- Explains that albert einstein provided an irreplaceable foundation of knowledge in the quantum mechanical field. he embellished upon the hypotheses and principles planck postulated.
- Explains albert einstein's contribution to quantum theory.
- States masters, barry r., "albert einstein and the nature of light." optics and photonics news. the optical society.
- Explains that norton, john d., "einstein on the completeness of quantum theory." university of pittsburgh, 2011.

938 wordsRead More - Albert Einstein's Theory Of Relativity Essayexplanatory essayAlbert Einstein’s theories of relativity changed what we originally believed about the physics of our world, and also added new dimensions to our understanding of physics. Einstein combined two previous theories: the Theories of General Relativity and Special Relativity, to create his Theory of Relativity. This theory changed our ideas of how to do rational science. It also added to the basis of modern quantum mechanics by stating that light really comes in little bundles of energy called quanta.
#### In this essay, the author

- Explains that albert einstein's theories of relativity changed what we originally believed about the physics of our world.
- Explains that general relativity consists of einstein's field equations, which specify how the geometry of space and time is influenced by matter and radiation.
- Explains that gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity.
- Explains that gravitational waves are ripples in the curve of space-time that are sent out as waves.
- Explains that the theory of special relativity had many consequences, such as relative simultaneity and length contraction.
- Explains that gravitational waves were detected by the twin laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (ligo) detectors in livingston, louisiana, and hanford, washington.
- Explains that relativity has changed our view of many things and helped us better understand the scientific and non-scientific world around us.
- Explains that the general theory of relativity demonstrates that time is related or linked to matter and space.
- Explains that there were several predictions of general relativity, such as that light bends towards the sun twice as much as classical physics predicts.
- Explains how relativity can be seen in our daily lives and even technologies we use.

1859 wordsRead More - The Special Theory of Relativity by Albert Einsteincomparative essayThe Special Theory of relativity is an acknowledged physical theory that revolutionized advancements in the relationship between space, and time. The theory is one of the most interesting discoveries that are still used today in science fiction movies such as Star Wars, and Star Trek through the use of black holes, and time travel due to it’s astonishing results, and it occurrence at speeds close to the speed light, which can be appealing to a wide range of audience. This was a harvest from six years of extremely handwork by Albert Einstein. Einstein used resources that were widely available to the public due to his economic constraints. It wasn’t until 1905, when Einstein finally had finished and published his discoveries, and gatherings of previous discoveries from other scientists regarding the special theory of relativity. It wasn’t until the 19th century when Albert’s discoveries were put on a dependable experiment by Maxwell adding to the legitimacy of Einstein’s discoveries. The special theory of relativity is still in use today in modern technological devices such as the GPS, as well as sub-microscopic particle interactions, and motion of stars and galaxies, and cosmology.
#### In this essay, the author

- Explains that the special theory of relativity revolutionized advancements in the relationship between space, and time.
- Explains the galilean principle of relativity and the special theory of relativity's second postulate that the speed of light in vacuum is the same in all inertial frames.
- Explains that the relativistic mass increase or realistic addition of velocities is the second affect of special theory of relativity.
- Explains that m0 = the mass measured at rest relative to an observer traveling with the same velocity.
- Explains that the third affect of the special theory of relativity is length contraction. length contraction is the decrease in length observed by a person from stationary reference frame on the object that is in motion.
- Concludes that the special theory of relativity is one of the breakthroughs, and can be considered the masterpiece of einstein’s work.
- Explains that the simultaneity of events is matter of a person's frame of reference. the first of the special theory of relativity’s affects causes the phenomenon of time dilation.

920 wordsRead More - Quantum Physicsexplanatory essayQuantum mechanics is the study of the behavior of energy and matter at the atomic, molecular and nuclear levels and sometimes even microscopic levels. The first initial information on quantum mechanics was first discovered in the early 20th century by a pioneering scientist Max Planck, because of this early knowledge of quantum energy it led to the first invention of the transistor. Scientist Max Planck discovered an equation that explained the results of these tests. The equation is as follows, E=Nhf, with E=energy, N=integer, h=constant, f=frequency. In determining this equation, Planck came up with the constant (h), which is now known as "Planck's constant." The word “Quantum” comes from the Latin meaning “how much”, which refers to the units of matter and energy predicted and observed in quantum physics. In day to day life it is understood how the world generally works and how the basic laws of physics come to play. Some examples of this are the following, drop a vase and it will break on the floor due to gravity, push a toy car and it will ride along because pushing something makes it move. Since the turn of the century scientists assumed that all the basic rules of physics applied to everything in nature as well but they did not. Quantum mechanics has also played an important role in technological advances that make modern life possible. Without it the first transistor would not have been invented or the personal computer or laser, and hence no Blu-ray players. Author James Kakalios mentioned in an interview regarding his book titled The Amazing Story of Quantum Mechanics that if you understand and accept the following three ideas, a light is a photon, matter has a wavelength nature associated with its motion and tha...
#### In this essay, the author

- Explains that quantum mechanics is the study of the behavior of energy and matter at the atomic, molecular and nuclear levels and sometimes even microscopic levels.
- Explains how quantum mechanics came to be based on the discovery of atoms, electrons and light waves. the discreteness of energy, wave-particle duality of light and matter, quantum tunneling, and the heisenberg uncertainty principle are among the most important aspects.
- Explains that in the discreteness of energy, electrons exist within certain levels, which prevents them from running into the nucleus. quantum tunneling is considered the most interesting theory from quantum mechanics.
- Explains the heisenberg uncertainty principle, which states the more precise the position of a particle, the less precise its momentum will be known.
- Explains that quantum computers will be able to execute jobs much faster than today's computers. quantum physics may help doctors locate cancer cells in the body.

1077 wordsRead More - “Ticking Away the Moments”analytical essayIn the original time travel novel, The Time Machine by H.G. Wells, the main character is sent on an extraordinary journey to the future. In this 800,000 year journey The Time Traveler, as he is known in the book, faces many new challenges and sees many new sights. Paralleling this fictional story, time travel is becoming a new focus of study. Time travel, a supported theory by many world-renowned physicists, is a widely debated topic in modern times. However, to fully understand this debate, a small lesson is needed.
#### In this essay, the author

- Analyzes how time travel is becoming a new focus of study in the original h.g. wells novel, the time machine.
- Explains that the intricacies of how time travel is theorized to work are not considered common knowledge.
- Explains that time travel has a number of opponents who strongly believe it is not possible for it to occur. the grandfather paradox is one of the most prominent.
- Analyzes how the opponents of time travel have a number of logical reasons why it is not possible, but the proponents of this debated topic have an equal amount of facts supporting them.
- Explains the theory that time travel is possible. they explain how time-dilation, the effect of the rate of time changing around the universe, is analogous to a river winding down
- Explains that there are both supporters and critics surrounding the worldly study of time travel. the critic stands behind paradoxes and the amount of energy required to travel through time to justify their opinion.
- States buniy, roman v., and stephen d.h. hsu. semi-classical wormholes and time machines are unstable.
- Explains that time travel paradoxes, path integrals, and the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. kaku, michio. physics of the impossible.
- Explains lobo, francisco, and paulo crawford's "time, closed timelike curves and causality". lycan, william g. and pogge, richard.
- Explains thorne, kip s., and trefil, james. the physical possibilities of travel through time.

1159 wordsRead More - Reality: Theory of Relativity and The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanicsanalytical essayDo we live in a world with a reality that is independent of the observer, which can be assessed objectively and compared to an observer’s perceptions? Or do we live in a world that has a reality dependent on the consciousness of the observer? The two most successful scientific theories do not agree on the role of the observer in reality. The Theory of Relativity implies that there is an observer-independent reality whereas The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics implies an observer-dependent reality. In this paper, I will critically examine the views of both and evaluate what our observation can tell us about the world.
#### In this essay, the author

- Explains the copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and the heisenberg uncertainty principle.
- Analyzes how schrödinger set up a thought experiment to show that quantum concepts break down and do not apply to large systems.
- Explains lange, marc, "is the moon there when nobody looks?" philosophy of science: an anthology.
- Explains norton, john d., special relativity basics, department of history and philosophy of science, university of pittsburgh.
- Cites bub, jeffrey, "quantum entanglement and information." stanford university, 13 aug. 2001.
- Opines that zimmerman jones, andrew, and the possibility of quantum consciousness, are abusing quantum physics. about.com physics.
- Explains hoffman, donald d., "what do we mean by "the structure of the world"?"
- Argues that the theory of relativity and the copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics do not agree on the role of the observer in reality.
- Compares quantum mechanics' nonlocal entanglement with the theory of relativity's idea of locality.
- Opines that perception is a combination of systematic, intransigent, and subjective observations.

1594 wordsRead More - Einstein's Principle of Relativityexplanatory essayWhat would happen if he could ride alongside abeam of light, was the question that Albert Einstein asked himself in 1894. This simple question was a question that eventually led Einstein to formulate his theories on relativity. Ten years were all it took Einstein to have two theories regarding spacetime; the theory of special relativity and the theory general relativity. The theory of special relativity is the theory that unifies time and space, while the theory of general relativity explains gravity as the curvature of spacetime.
#### In this essay, the author

- Explains that albert einstein asked himself in 1894 what would happen if he could ride alongside abeam of light, which led him to formulate his theories on relativity.
- Explains that einstein explained his special theory of relativity in a paper titled, "zur elektrodynamik bewegter koerper" and that time and space are relative to the observer's position.
- Explains einstein's general relativity, which states that gravity and motion can have an effect on time and space.
- Explains that general relativity explores the relationship between gravitational mass and inertial mass to figure out the effect of gravity depending only on spacetime and geometry.
- Explains that einstein proposed a universe that was defined "with respect to its spatial demensions," not infinite like "newton's universe." the model was published in 1917 in "cosmological consideration on the general theory of relativity."
- Explains how einstein's theory of general relativity was proved correct during the solar eclipse of 1919.
- Explains that einstein's general theory of relativity proves that the theory of relativity is important in everyday life.
- Opines that einstein's theory on general relativity has a major role in the domain of astronomy, physics, and cosmology.

832 wordsRead More - The Tragedy of Mileva Maric Einstein - Einstein's First Wifeanalytical essayA hundred years ago, a young married couple sat at a kitchen table talking over the items of the day while their young boy sat listening earnestly. He had heard the debate every night, and while there were no raised voices, their discussion was intense. It was a subject about which his parents were most passionate - the electrodynamics of moving bodies in the universe. The couple were of equal intelligence and fortitude, working together on a theory that few people can comprehend even to this day. Mileva Maric Einstein was considered to be the intellectual equal of her husband Albert, but somehow went unrecognized for her contributions to the 1905 Papers, which included the Special Theory of Relativity. The stronger force of these two bodies would be propelled into the archives of scientific history, while the other would be left to die alone, virtually unknown. Mrs. Einstein was robbed. She deserved to be recognized for at least a collaborative effort, but it was not to be. The role which society had accorded her and plain, bad luck would prove to be responsible for the life of this great mathematician and scientist, gone unnoticed.
#### In this essay, the author

- Describes how mileva maric einstein, the intellectual equal of her husband albert, was robbed for her contributions to the 1905 papers, which included the special theory of relativity.
- Narrates how mileva won top marks in her class for math and physics, and was sent on to the swiss federal institute of technology in zurich the same year as einstein.
- Analyzes how a recent public television movie, einstein's wife, portrays mileva as just another woman who chose family over career.
- Explains that the fifteenth amendment of the u.s. constitution did not specifically exclude women from voting, yet women had only been enfranchised a few years prior.
- Explains that mileva and albert were a team, working diligently on their theory, and he accorded her credit as coauthor and collaborator of the work.
- Analyzes how mileva sweated out debates with the likes of einstein and his cronies, yet she was trivialized for being the only woman in her field.
- Explains that albert was the hapless inventor, and most of his original papers were lost. einstein was asked to recreate his 1905 papers, word-for-word, for the purpose of selling them at auction.
- Analyzes how the movie has been the subject of recent dinner party conversations in upper-middle-class neighborhoods. however, among local scientists, the ex-mrs. einstein is a nonentity.
- Opines that if mileva maric had received the credit as coauthor, would this have changed society's view of women scientists earlier in the century?
- Explains that bjerknes, christopher jon. a theory of einstein, the irrational plagiarist. canberra times.
- Analyzes grenier, cynthia, theory about einstein; did first wife contribute to relativity work?
- Cites headden, susan, ed. albert einstein, secrets of genius: three minds that shaped the twentieth century.
- Analyzes storey, celia, einstein's wife depicts genius as mortal in the arkansas democrat-gazette.
- Cites the university of alabama, department of physics and astronomy, 4,000 years of women in science.
- Reviews white, michael, and gribbin, john. einstein: a life in science.

2074 wordsRead More - What Is Quantum Mechanics Essayexplanatory essayQuantum mechanics describes several objects and phenomena that seem strange and are difficult to understand. Among these are quanta “chunks” of energy; the wave-particle duality of matter; and the uncertainty principle which limits what we can know about objects. In 1927, German physicist Werner Heisenberg discovered a general characteristic of quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle. According to this principle, it is impossible to precisely describe both the location and the momentum of a particle at the same time, therefore it affects the attempts to measure a particle’s location and
#### In this essay, the author

- Explains that quantum mechanics developed over many decades beginning as a set of controversial mathematical explanations of experiments that the math of classical mechanics could not explain.
- Explains quantum mechanics is a branch of physics that describes the structure and behavior of matter. it replaced classical mechanics, based on physical laws described by sir isaac newton and james clerk maxwell.
- Explains that quantum mechanics describes objects and phenomena that seem strange and are difficult to understand, such as quantum energy, wave-particle duality, and the uncertainty principle.
- Explains how max planck found the first flaw in classical mechanics. scientists measured the amounts of energy in different wavelengths of light emitted from the surfaces of certain hot objects.
- Explains that certain properties, such as position, speed and color, can sometimes only occur in specific, set amounts. this challenged the assumption of classical mechanics, which said such properties should exist on a smooth, continuous spectrum.
- Describes planck's equation to explain the distribution of colors emitted over the spectrum in the glow of red and white-hot objects, which was unexpected because light was understood to act as a wave.
- Explains how quantization helped explain other mysteries of physics. in 1907, einstein used planck's hypothesis of quantization to explain why the temperature changed by different amounts if you put the same amount of heat into the material.
- Explains that light behaves as a wave, like ripples on the surface of calm lakes. added wave crests result in brighter light, while waves that cancel out produce darkness.
- Explains that in 1924, louis de broglie proposed that subatomic particles, such as electrons, are associated with waves. later experiments determined him correct.

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