The Effects Of Stress On The Development Of Depression And Anxiety

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Anxiety is a common consequence of chronic stress. In humans, stressful life events may lead to anxiety even in the absence of a chronic physiological stress response [13]. Many studies have been conducted to identify the role of different factors that contribute to the development of depression and anxiety [A, B]. It has been reported that decrease anxiety related behavior in humans and animals. Exposure to stress is a main environmental risk factor associated with the occurrence of depression (Keller et al., 2007; Kendler et al., 1999; Kessler, 1997). And its may be the most important environmental factor affecting feeding behavior, metabolism, and neuroendocrine functions (Kormos and Gaszner 2013) and (Patterson, Khazall et al. 2013). Experimentally, the outcome of stress exposure is influenced by several variables, including the nature of the stress (physical/systemic vs. cognitive/psychological), the severity of the stress, and exposure parameters. Among trusty models of depression, chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression in rodents has been proposed to model some of the environmental factors that contribute to the introduction of depressive disorders in humans [3, 4).In the present protocol CMS, sequential exposure to a varying mild stressors causes behavioral changes which can be related with a modifications of the HPA axis [60 , 61,62,63,64,65,66,67,]. Typically, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis mobilizes energy and suppresses various anabolic processes (201), and culminating in increased levels of glucocorticoids [200], wich The end products of HPA axis activity that regulate many physiological functions and play an important role in affective regulation and dysregulation. In our rese... ... middle of paper ... ...ful stimuli did not alter the number of open arms (p = ; p > 0.05; Fig. 1A) and the number of closed arms (p= ; p > 0.05; Fig. 1C) displayed by all groups. In Fig. 1B, stressed rats treated with saline decreased open arms time compared with control rats treated with saline (p < 0.05). Statistical analyses revealed that treatment with harmine increased open arms time when compared with stressed rats treated with saline. Fig. 2. 1A showed that stressed rats injected with saline display a significant decrease in cholesterol (p = 4.41; p < 0.05) levels in the plasma compared with non-stressed rats treated with saline or harmine. The treatment with harmine in stressed animals reversed the decreased of cholesterol levels. According to the Fig 1B, there was not a statistically significant difference between control and CMS groups for triglyceride levels.
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