What happens to food once it is ingested? Where does it go? How is it broken down into smaller pieces? The digestive process is very complex, but simple to understand. It involves several steps that include from being chewed inside the mouth, to landing in the stomach for more breakdown, traveling through the intestines, and finally exiting the body.
Food such as invertebrates, small vertebrates, seeds, grasses, and other plant material is first mechanically digested in the mouth by mastication into smaller pieces. However, chemical digestion occurs in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, and is used to digest and absorb the major food groups; carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. The amino acids and peptides produced after protein digestion from pepsinogen and the various proteases from the pancreas are absorbed fairly easily. Using sodium dependent transport proteins (both the amino acid and the sodium are moved into the cytoplasm) to cross the intestinal lumen membrane, the amino acids then use normal transport proteins to cross the basolateral membrane into the interstitial fluid,
This area is what makes the stomach very flexible allowing it to hold large volumes of food, but it varies from person to person. Undigested materials are emptied into the distal portion of the stomach, which will grind and mix solid foods. The grinding and mixing of foods is made easier through contractions of the muscular walls of the stomach and also via the secretion of gastric juices. “Gastric juice secreted from glands lining the stomach contains gastric acid, bile salts, and digestive enzymes. The gastric juices penetrate and dilute the food bolus.” (Kong, F & Singh R.P., 2009) Bile salts are chemically made up of 24 carbon atoms and are seen as conjugated forms in the human body. The conjugated forms are made up mainly glycine. It can be understood that 75 percent of bile salts are in the conjugated form of glycine. (Monte, M, Marin, J & Antelo, A, 2009) These bile salts and gastric juices help aid in the formation of the food bolus. The food bolus resembles a round spherical shape that is broken down even more in the pylorus section of the stomach into chyme. Chyme is a combination of watery solutions, fats, and other liquids. This enters into the small intestine, which absorbs nutrients. Nutrient absorption includes the dissolving of liquids into the pancreas, liver, and large intestine. Nutrients that are not absorbed are transported into the large intestine for excretion. (Kong, F & Singh R.P.,
Nutrition and the Digestive System
Digestion is important for breaking down food into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. Food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before the blood absorbs them and carries them to cells throughout the body. The body breaks down nutrients from food and drink into carbohydrates, protein, fats, and vitamins. Although we know that nutrients are food components that the body needs to survive and grow, you can find lists of nutrients that your body is not getting enough of though normal intake of food. Understanding the process what happens when we ingest food as well as how it benefits the body in important to health professionals today.
The function of the digestive system in the human body is to break down macromolecules into their individual monomers so the body can process them. There are two major types of digestion that occur in the body. These are mechanical digestion and chemical digestion. Mechanical digestion is the mechanical process of breaking down food particles into smaller pieces. Chemical digestion is the secretion of enzymes and chemicals that break down the food even further into their individual molecules. Some common enzymes in the human body are amylase, pepsin and lipase. Enzymes are catalysts that speed up reactions but aren’t reactants themselves. Different enzymes also react on different substrates, for example, amylase reacts on carboh...
A: The purpose of chemical digestion is to break down the food into simpler nutrients that can be used. Locations include in the mouth with saliva, in the stomach by using enzymes such as pepsin to aid with protein digestion or lipase to aid with lipid digestion, and in the pancreas to secrete enzymes to break down protein, carbohydrates and fats.
The human body uses various kinds of food for energy, growth, repair and healing processes. Thus, humans gain the necessary elements for these functions from food they consume. Food is made up of large things also known as complex molecules is broken down to form simple molecules by the digestive system and is readily absorbed into the bloodstream. Digestion is known as the body’s process of obtaining important nutrients from food. The digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion such as tongues, salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gallbladder which perform the process by which food is eaten and broken down into different components. This breakdown makes it possible for digested material to
The reason I chose this topic was because I wanted to find out what enzymes are used for, to what extent they are used in our bodies and, how vast are their applications in food industries.
Enzymes are presented in many different shapes and sizes because form fits function. Enzymes play an active role in everyday life, in every living organism. What all enzymes have in common is that they are proteins meant to speed up chemical reactions because without them reactions would occur at an extremely slow rate. This would be a conflict for every living thing which is why enzymes are so important. Enzymes are defined as “a protein formed by the body that acts as a catalyst to cause a certain desired reaction” (1). Enzymes are very particular; therefore they are intended to conduct a specific response with a specific result. The experiment concerning gelatin and the various temperature conditions of the added pineapple will allow the students to view the enzymatic activity of pineapple based on its condition. This would be determined by the solidity of gelatin. The student wants to determine how the different temperature conditions of the pineapple: frozen, canned, and fresh will affect the solidity of the gelatin. The hypothesis concurred by the student is that canned pineapple is ineffective when added to gelatin; the gelatin would be able to solidify because in during the canning process the enzymes within the pineapple will be denatured. Enzymes and its limiting factors are important concepts to be aware of.
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the saliva and stomach where alpha-amylase hydrolyses alpha-1, 4 glycosidic bonds between glucose molecules in starch, forming maltotriose, the disaccharide maltose and dextrin’s made of five to ten glucose molecules (Lim, 2007). The disaccharides sucrose and lactose come directly from food. There are four enzymes found on the brush-border membrane responsible for hydrolysing sucrose, lactose and the products of starch break down, into monosaccharaides so that they can be absorbed (Lieberman et al, 2007). These enzymes are known as glycosidases and include; glucoamylase, lactase, trehalase and sucrase isomaltase (Lieberman et al, 2007). Sucrase isomaltase...