The crust and the upper mantle are composed of many pieces, almost like a puzzle, these pieces are called tectonic plates. The tectonic plates are constantly moving; sliding past and bumping into one another. The movement of the tectonic plates is caused by the motion. There are oceanic and continental plates. Most earthquakes that arise are along the tectonic plate boundaries.
There are many faults around the world and depending on where these faults are plays a major factor in determining where an earthquake will occur. It is these faults that are the reason for earthquakes. The information seismologists know about past earthquakes and earthquakes in general give them a limited ability to generally predict when and where earthquakes are going to occur. An earthquake is the shaking of Earth’s surface caused by rapid movement of the earth’s rocky outer layer. “Earthquakes occur when tension stored in rocks suddenly releases” (Vogt 12).
The earthquakes are also most frightening when it first begins. This is due to the fact of the unknown. You have no idea how long the earthquake will occur or how violent it will be. Earthquake’s can be very destructive in many ways. “Collapsing buildings claim by far the majority of lives, but the destruction is often compounded by mud slides, fires, floods, or tsunamis”(National Geographic par.3).
These seismic waves travelled all the way from the sea to land, wreaking havoc in their paths. Though earthquakes are always dangerous, they can have a far more ... ... middle of paper ... ...detect events that may cause a tsunami, supplement these systems (Doc. 10). A few years after the tsunami, another earthquake and tsunami struck… in Japan. Japan, a country which is constantly pestered by earthquakes and tsunamis, was ready.
Earthquakes - The Dynamic Earth Precise definition of earthquakes: Earthquake is a natural disaster that occurs when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. The surface where they slip is called the fault, also known as the fault plane. The area below the earth’s surface where the earthquake starts is called the hypocentre, and the area above it on the surface is called the epicentre. More than a million earthquakes rattle the world each year. But, most are so small that they can only be detected by sensitive instruments called seismogram.
In knowing what earthquakes are, people can learn to recognize the signs, and better educate themselves. Through grasping how an earthquake occurs, and where they happen in the world can better help people understand earthquakes as a whole. Also, in being mindful on how earthquakes are measured and their magnitude can help someone become better educated on the topic of earthquakes since they could happen at any time. Besides the fact, learning about the causes, foreshocks, mainshocks, and aftershocks are also vital in sensing earthquakes. Not only is it fundamental to know the facts behind earthquakes, it is also crucial to know where they occur, such as in places like Haiti, Japan, and Mexico.
Sometimes the movement is slow and steady, and at other time the plates are locked together, no able to discharge the compiled energy. When the compiled energy advances steady enough, the plates break free. Obviously and sadly, if there were no early warnings, if an earthquake occurs in a crowded and populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and a massive amount of property damage. It is clear to see that earthquakes are an ultimate uncontrollable and unpredictable hazard to life and property. As stated in the U.S Geological Survey, “Scientist have begun to estimate the locations and likelihoods of future damaging earthquakes.
Primary effects are usually a result of the ground shaking causing buildings to collaspe. This than results in the secondary effects which are usually tsunamis, fires due to gas lines rupturing, landslides and other catastophic events. Human life is impacted greatly by all of these as they leave us without homes and missing family members that might be trapped under rumble and debris. As if that wasn't bad enough earthquakes tend to casue tsunamis which destroy absolutely everything in their path. Nothing will stand a chance in the path of a tsunami as it's huge wave of destruction takes its course.
Manmade explosions, dislocation of segments of the crust or volcanic eruptions are all triggers for an Earthquake; however, most are caused by a slippage of faults. A fault is a fracture in the Earths crust along which two blocks of the crust have slipped within one another. These faults are grouped into three categories (normal, thrust and strike-slip) and are located all over the Earth. In North America there is a very large fault that runs through California that separates the North American plate and the Pacific plate. The afore mentioned fault is called the San Andreas fault and is approximately 1300 kilometers long and a great source for Earthquakes and activity.
Earthquakes are one of the most damaging natural disasters known to man. They have been known to destroy entire cities in their total time of 2 to 3 minutes. Most people do not know that earthquakes are common through out the entire world; they are just more powerful in places such as California and small countries in South America. The definition of earthquake is “ a series of vibrations induced in the earth's crust by the abrupt rupture and rebound of rocks in which elastic strain has been slowly accumulating” according to Infoseek.com.. As a consequence of continental plate movement, the Earth's surface near active faults deforms before, during and after earthquakes. Similarly, the ground surface near active volcanoes also deforms as a consequence of eruptions and volcano evolution.