The Effect of Rural-Urban Migration in South Africa

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Investigating the effect of rural-urban migration on the four districts of the North West province in South Africa using Manova technique. INTRODUCTION This proposal is about the effect of rural-urban migration on the four districts of the North West province in South Africa. It entails the background of rural-urban migration as well as the statement of the problem, main objectives, other specific objectives, rationale, hypotheses, identification of variables, the theories of other people concerning the rural-urban migration and the literature review. Rural-urban migration is a type of migration where the migrant moves from a rural area to an urban area due to particular reasons. This concept will be thoroughly discussed in the literature review. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Rural-urban migration started way back in South Africa during the apartheid era but back then it was more dominant among males. After 1994 everyone was migrating, both females and males especially those who are economically active. One of the well-known types of rural-urban migration back then was labour migration. Most men were recruited to go and work in the mines in big cities in order to make a living for themselves and those who depend on them (families). Within rural-urban migration there is a place of origin and a place of destination which are both affected by this type of migration. The place of origin is where the migrant come from (their original place of birth/rural areas) and the place of destination is where the migrant is heading (urban areas). The other important aspect that causes rural-urban migration is the pull and the push factors. The push factors can be lack of job opportunities, poor health facilities and lack of education facilities.... ... middle of paper ... ...sing and existing migration of labour workers. 3. Governments are able to influence migration but only through major changes in economic organizations. 4. PUSH-PULL THEORY This theory echoes common sense by saying that some people are pushed from their original places by certain factors, when others are pulled by certain factors in other places. Ravenstein noticed that pull factors were more important than push factors. The pull factors can be more employment opportunities, more developed infrastructure, good health services. The push factors are the opposite of the pull factors. (Weeks, 2012) 5. DISTANCE THEORY OF MIGRATION The distance theory of migration states that most migrations occur at short distances. The number of migrants arriving in a given location was thought to decrease as the distance required for travel to that location increases. (Todaro, 1976).
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