The Ebola virus (EBOV)

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1. Introduction
The Ebola virus (EBOV) is a dangerous virus which has a chance of mortality when infected up to 90%. This makes it one of the most deadly viruses for humans in the world. 1, 2 It does not stop there. Various EBOV outbreaks have fatally infected tens of thousands of chimpan-zees, duikers and gorillas. It those areas it is a great threat to the wildlife.3
EBOV belongs to the order of the nonsegmented negative-sense (NNS)RNA type viruses, the Mononegavirales and it is part of the family Filoviridae. EBOV is a member of the genus Ebolavirus. This genus has five distinct species: Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, Su-dam ebolavirus, Taï Forest ebola virus and Reston ebolavirus.4 The Ebola virus should not be confused with the ebolavirus. While ebolavirus is a genus, the Ebola virus is the only virus of the species Zaire ebolavirus.

2. Genome organization and viral proteins
In figure 1A a schematic diagram of the EBOV genome can been seen. There are seven genes arranged in the viral genome. Of these seven the proteins NP, L, VP30 and VP 35 are associated with the viral genomic RNA and form the nucleocapsid.5, 6 The other three pro-teins, GP, VP24 and VP 40 are associated with the membrane.7 The genome is aproximately 19kb in length.6
The EBOV virus shows a characteristic thread-like appearance.8 An example of this can been seen in figure 1B. This feature is characteristic for filovirusses. An EBOV particle can be from 800 to 1000 nm long and it has a width from 80 nm.9
GP is the only surface protein (see figure 1C) and it is critical for the the binding and fussion during the entry of the virus. It has spikes of 7 to 10 nm long. 10 In the case of EBOV the GP consists of 2 subunits. Glucoprotein 1 (GP1) and glyc...

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...ha is a cofactor for cellular entry by Marburg and Ebola. Cell. 2001 Jul 13;106(1):117-26., 117-26.
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19. Saeed, M.F., Kolokoltsov, A.A., Albrecht, T. & Davey, R.A. Cellular Entry of Ebola Virus Involves Uptake by a Macropinocytosis-Like Mechanism and Subsequent Trafficking through Early and Late Endosomes. Plos Pathogens 6 (2010).
20. Wen, Z.Y. et al. Recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus expressing Ebola virus GP infects cells independently of exogenous trypsin and uses macropinocytosis as the major pathway for cell entry. Virology Journal 10 (2013).
21. JE, C. et al. - Ebola virus entry requires the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1. - Nature. 2011 Aug 24;477(7364):340-3. doi: 10.1038/nature10348., - 340-3.

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