The ear is an organ of the body that is used for hearing and balance. It is connected to the brain by the auditory nerve and is composed of three divisions, the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The greater part of which is enclosed within the temporal bone. The ear is looked upon as a miniature receiver, amplifier and signal-processing system. The structure of the outer ear catching sound waves as they move into the external auditory canal.
The ear is able to pick up sound waves and transfer them into nerve impulses that can be read by the brain. Background: A sound wave is pressure variations in air. Sound waves move through air the same as a wave in water. A sound wave is caused by an objects vibrations that cause the air surrounding it to vibrate. When the air vibrates it, the ear drum picks up the vibrations and translates them to the brain.
The Middle Ear The next question is how does the ear take this sound wave, which are simply vibrations of air particles, and get them past the air-fluid interface between the outer ear and inner ear? The middle ear has important structures that help amplify a sound wave that is being funneled in from the outer ear and transfer the energy to the inner ear. The tympanic membrane, which is also known as the eardrum sits between the ear canal and the middle ear. Behind the eardrum are the ossicles and tympanic muscles. Each of these bones and muscles play a role in how the sound wave is moved from the air-filled ear canal to the fluid-filled cochlea.
The secondary auditory cortex surrounds the primary auditory cortex. Unlike the primary, within the secondary auditory cortex each cell responds to a complex combination of sounds. There are two main types of hearing loss, conduction hearing loss, or middle-ear deafness, and nerve loss, or inner-ear deafness. Some causes of conduction hearing loss include a punctured eardrum, earwax buildup, or Otosclerosis, abnormal bone growth in the middle ear. Some causes of nerve loss are Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, Meniere’s disease, fluid buildup in the inner ear, or noise-induced hearing loss, all of which often produce Tinnitus, ringing in the ears.
The eardrum is a thin membrane stretched in the inner end of the canal. Air pressure which caused by the sound waves, cause the eardrum to vibrate. Then, these vibrations are transmitted to three small bones called (Ossicles) which located in the middle ear. Middle ear perceive vibrations and conduct them to another thin membrane called the (Oval window) which separates the middle ear from the inner ear. The inner ear contains the (Cochlea), a spiral-shaped structure that contains the organ of (Corti) which sits in a sensitive membrane called the (basilar membrane).
Based on how severe of a hearing impairment a person has depends on what kind of treatment they receive for a hearing impairment (Battey.) When a person is “hard of hearing” and are still able to hear some noise and sounds, they are able to get hearing aids. Hearing aids amplify the incoming sound and improve hearing ability. However, hearing aids cannot restore normal hearing. On the other hand, cochlear implants are used when a person has very little ability to hear in one or both ears.
Travels through middle ear by the use of 3 bones (incus, stapes, and malleus). 3. In the middle ear the sound is amplified in order to move the fluid in the ear. 4. In the inner ear (cochlea) the sound is converted into neural activity.
• Hearing loss may result from damage in any part in the ear that blocks the ear canal. There are three types of deafness, first of all conductive deafness, as it means that the sound can’t pass through the outer and middle ear to send it to the cochlea and auditory nerve, second of all sensori-neural deafness as its caused by a problem in the cochlea, last but not least mixed deafness as it’s a combination of both sensori-neural deafness. Symptoms of deafness as could be difficulty to the person that have deafness to following the conversation. Some of the causes of hearing loss is damage to the inner ear, the accumulation of earwax infections and rupture the eardrum. As our ear is consist of three parts the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear, these all works together to pass sound through our ears and our
In the brain, the cerebral cortex, or a thin but convoluted outer layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres contains motor, sensory, and association areas that are important for muscle contractions. The primary motor area in the frontal lob is the beginning of skeletal muscles. Then the primary motor area sends signals to the cerebellum, which integrates them. The primary somatosensory area dorsal to the central sulcus in the parietal lobe is where the sensory information from the skin and skeletal muscles arrive. There, a primary visual area receives information from the eyes.
These sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate. The vibrations are caught by the middle ear, a set of small bones, which transfer the vibrations to the cochlea (inner ear). Here, the sound waves are converted to neural impulses. The neural network in the human brain decodes information from both ears. Within the cochlea resides a basilar membrane, a supporting structure for the cochlea nerve.