The Dog

explanatory Essay
3720 words
3720 words

The Dog

Domestic dog, carnivorous mammal, generally considered the first domesticated animal. The domesticated dog has coexisted with human beings as a working partner and household pet in all eras and cultures since the days of the cave dwellers. It is generally believed that the direct ancestor of the domestic dog is the wolf, originally found throughout Europe, Asia, and North America.
Remains of a dog, estimated to be 10,500 years old, have been found in Idaho.

TAXONOMY Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae Genus: Canis Species: Canis familiaris


Little is known about wild dogs of the past but that they are carnivores: hunters and scavengers. This means that they are secondary consumers in web chains. Eventhough they are carnivores they sometimes accept eating green plants.
The ecology of dogs right know is that it helps the human in many fields of life.
Since the cave dweller times, dogs have been domesticated by humans and it has helped him to hunt, in herding, protection, etc. It has been very important as a work animal and as a psychological support for humans. The habitat of the dog is where it’s owner lives. Different dogs have different adaptations to their ancestral habitat but nowadays, this is not applicable.



The skeleton of the dog is the articulated structure, moved by the muscles, that holds the dog’s body and protects some organs and the nervous system. It also functions as mineral and blood deposit of the body. The skeleton of a dog is made up of approximately 321 bones: 134 form the axial skeleton (skull, vertebrae, ribs, etc.), and 186 form the appendicular skeleton (appendages). An extra bone has to be added for male dogs which is the penile bone. The dog is a digigraded animal (it walks with it’s toes). It lies on it’s third phalanges which are protected by palm cushions. The dog’s toes are arranged in an angle which gives more facility of rest after running or other activities. The teeth of the dog is composed of 42 teeth which include canines, molars, incisors, etc.


Joints permit the movement of the bones. There are three types of joints in a dog: fixed joints, movable joints, and semi-movable joints. Fixed joints, such as the ones in the skull don’t permit any movement but keep the bones together.
The semi-movable joints are those t...

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...e responds with the same howl. Two dogs that may encounter an bark are just imposing themselves. This makes them have more confidence. The nature of dog sounds can be described as follows: a hoarse and cut bark expresses a menace (a dare to another animal or an advice to an intruder so that it moves out of the territory), a happy bark ( coming to its owner or before going for a walk), a special bark to indicate a prey, etc. Then there are the obvious sounds: cry, lament, howl, screams, and grunts.


The look of a dog can tell a lot. A fixed look means fear or malevolence. The look of a dog to sheep or cows can control them and place them in order.


Gestures of a dog to show happiness are the constant movement of the tail. A tail between the legs means fear. A dog in an aggressive posture shapes and moves its body to make it look bigger: it elongates, it’s hair gets straight up, etc. To exhibit submission a dog often lies itself on the floor and with its tail between its legs it shows its genitals. When a dog tries to play with another it lies in a sphinx position, or it "dances" around the other dog, or it gently bites the other’s tail, etc.

In this essay, the author

  • Describes all eras and cultures since the days of the cave.
  • Explains that remains of a dog, estimated to be 10,500 years old, have been found in idaho.
  • Explains that the ecology of dogs helps humans in many fields of life.
  • Explains that the skeleton of a dog functions as mineral and blood deposit of the body.
  • Explains that extra bone has to be added for male dogs which is the penile bone.
  • Explains that joints permit the movement of the bones. there are three types of joints.
  • Explains that the ones in the skull don't permit any movement but keep the bones together.
  • Explains that inside of this group of joints there are various types of bones.
  • Explains that it permits the movement of the skeleton and it also moves the skin of a dog.
  • Explains that the smooth muscle is the one present in the heart.
  • Explains that the digestive system of a dog is very similar to one of humans.
  • Explains that the stomach to the small intestine is only 3 meters long, but it has a very strong stomach.
  • Explains that the rectum and anus are made through a series of added glands.
  • Explains how the air is then canalized through the two bronchi and then inside the lung.
  • Explains that the male gonads are the testicles inside a sac and the scrotum.
  • Explains that the penis of a dog is surrounded by penile bone, like urine does.
  • Explains that the eye of a dog consists of the cornea, iris, lens, and retina.
  • Explains how oxygen diffuses into the blood and returns to the heart, the left atrium.
  • Describes the valves that connect the vena cava to the right atrium.
  • Explains that the dog's training is faster than that of a human.
  • Explains that the dog needs to drink huge amounts of water for its body needs.
  • Opines that the mandible isn't very effective in the dog since it's not moving.
  • Explains the amount of bile from the liver secreted is of 25milliters per liter.
  • Explains that these feces go through the rectum and then to the anus where they finally leave.
  • Analyzes how the dog copulates too much in a row. the dog's testosterone, the sex hormone, is responsible for copulation.
  • Describes how the dog's vagina swells and spills when the follicles grow in their ovaries.
  • Explains that the dog's vagina isn't bleeding anymore after 8 days. the dog is very healthy.
  • Explains that the posestruation occurs if the dog is not pregnant and it lasts 12 to 72 hours.
  • Explains that the anestro lasts 3 months and a half and is secreted in the ovary.
  • Explains that the penis of a dog gets erect by filling the tissue with blood.
  • Explains that placenta is released and eaten by the mother. the period between puppy and mother is summary
  • Explains that when temperatures are low, the dog uses two temperatures.
  • Explains that dogs can lower the loss of heat by constricting the blood vessels of the dog.
  • Explains that when heat is too much, the dog seeks cool.
  • Compares the dog's smell to the human smell. an average dog has 147 smells.
  • Explains that the ear functions as the ones of other mammals such as humans.
  • Explains that locomotion in dogs is the same as in humans.
  • Explains that dogs are polygamists, they don't have a definite couple, and they are not polygames.
  • Explains that dogs can get depressed and they may tend to escape from their home.
  • Explains that the dog can also identify a prey by its smell.
  • Analyzes the constant movement of the tail of a dog to show happiness.
  • Explains the importance of the dog as a work animal and psychological support for humans.
  • Explains that the gonads of the female dog are composed of ovaries, which are under the kidneys, and produce eggs. ovaries are active after the dog is 4 to 6 months old.
  • Explains how a zygote is formed and stays in the uterus for two weeks until it sticks to the wall.
  • Explains that the peripheral n. s. is composed of the nerve cells and the autonomous one is made up of sympathetic and autonomous cells.
  • Explains that the dog's ear is long and curved. it is composed of the same structures as that of a human: the tympanic membrane, the series of tiny bones
  • Explains that the change of pressure in the lungs forces air in and the respiration rate is faster than the outside.
  • Analyzes how the dog drinks by moving its tongue back and forth and in form of a spoon. it impulses the water into the mouth.
  • Explains that the reproduction system of the female dog is much more complex than that of a male dog.
  • Explains that trapping the penis in the vagina produces three ejaculations in a male dog. the middle one with more sperm than the other two.
  • Explains that the dog arcs its body or goes near other dogs to prevent heat loss. if this isn't enough, it uses more energy.
  • Explains that smell is the most developed sense in the dog. a dog can smell a drop of acetic acid which has been diluted in 1,000 liters of water.
  • Explains that the functioning of the ear is the same as in a human. the vision capability of dogs is not comparable to that of humans.
  • Explains that dogs have a special coating in the eye globe that permits the dog to see more light when it is visible.
  • Explains that dogs do not have to live in groups to have these ranks, it is a natural instinct that even exist in dogs living with owners in cities.
  • Explains that the female exposes its vulva to the male when they meet. the sexual act goes after a series of sexual acts.
  • Narrates how a dog looks for safe, warm, and comfortable places to place her dogs to be born.
  • Explains that dogs bark to warn others of danger. a howl in the middle of the night is a concentration call.
  • Explains that cut bark expresses menace, happy bark, and special bark to indicate a prey.
  • Explains that a fixed look means fear or malevolence. a dog's look to sheep or cows can control them and place them in order.
  • Explains that a dog moves its body to make it look bigger, and exhibits submission by lying on the floor and with its tail between its legs, showing its genitals.
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