There is no escape. But in the minds of those who suffer such psychoses, do they suffer internally as we see it externally? That is the question. “I became insane, with long intervals of horrible sanity.” – Edgar Allen Poe.
I steer towards a kantian point of view because i believe a physician needs to be completely loyal to their patients and should not put their health in jeopardy. Randomized clinical trials have benefited medicine but they are a common place of corruption, by the exploitation of patients the medical industry can easily do more harm than good. Randomized clinical trials are a very broad idea therefore choosing to be for or against it is very difficult. Overall the kantian theory is what i personally thinks is the best way have a patient-physician relationship.
It has been a repetitive and shameful practice of the United States, and other countries, to shy away from or oppress those who are different. This form of inequality is shared with immigrants, African Americans, the physically ill, and the mentally ill. In particular, the discrimination against the mentally ill becomes an interesting and unique history that has evolved due to Western medicine, and now effects the whole world. In many instances, it has become apparent that the symptoms and stigma surrounding the mentally ill stems from Western ideals as well. This paper explores this stigma, the ways oppressions are carried out, and how they are being dealt with.
Its use in medicine is owed to Baxt because he was able to create a network of neurons that correctly and precisely diagnosed acute myocardial infarction. This led to the doors opening for Artificial Intelligent use in all areas of medicine as the potential increased for accuracy and better patient treatment. Artificial Intelligence is especially beneficial in radiology and analysis of images by possibly using “both human observations and direct digitised images as inputs to the networks. ANNs have been used to interpret plain radiographs, ultrasound, CT, MRI, and radioisotope scans” (Ramesh, Kambhampati, Monson and Drew, 2004). Fuzzy expert systems is in itself a scientific practice of logically analyzing and deducting that things are not absolute and clear cut but have an in between as well.
This is a severe problem in today’s society. Not all countries have such a large stigma surrounding those who suffer, but it is more evident within Western cultures as opposed to non-Western cultures. It is believed that other cultures have less of a stigma surrounding mental illnesses because there is “[a] lack of differentiation between psychiatric and non-psychiatric illness” (Corrigan et al., 2002). Although there may be that lack between the two illnesses types, it may be more beneficial for those who battle with
If you have a bipolar disorder you are insane and if you suffer of a depression you are merely overreacting. The absence of understanding in the U.S regarding mental disorder leads to outrageous views of the mentally sick, as the few ones mentioned above. The stigma around mental disorder is greatly associated with mental illness perceived in negative light which are toxic and detrimental. It is important to know how these approaches came to existence and why those views have been bolstering. The stigma against mental disorders traces back to the Anglo-American customs before the 1700s (Tomes and Gamwell) and has been etched in the society.
Atul Gawande, in his collection of essays entitled Complications: A Surgeon’s Notes on an Imperfect Science, sheds light on this view of medicine as a field of possibilities and dead ends, improvements and failures. In spite of the many changes brought forth by medicine, the evolution of the patient and doctor relationship into one that redefines the role of the patient in healthcare is arguably the most telling. Medical progress has been met by a new generation of patients who are more educated, better informed about their health, and are playing an increasingly active role in the decision-making surrounding their care. We no longer think of medicine as a one-way road with the physician making all the decisions pertinent to the patient’s health. The effectiveness of medical care is dependent as much on a doctor’s ability to make reasonable, sound judgments as on the patient’s ailment and right to demand the best possible care.
This decision will benefit pharmaceutical companies and CROs since it allows them to use placebo control even when a standard treatment is available [10 & 11]. As Epstein (2007) alluded that pharmaceutical companies could be exploiting the poor infrastructure, deferential patient population and the lack of regulatory body in developing countries to conduct clinical trials that are ethically unacceptable . This paper, by no means, is suggesting to completely avoid a placebo controlled studies. However, it points out that special care and thoughtful considerations need to be taken when planning a placebo controlled study especially where there are existing treatments. In addition, when conducting clinical trials in developing countries, patients should be given equal rights and opportunities as their counterparts in the developed countries.
There are respectable laws currently in place that physicians must follow, which state that a physician cannot use deception, and must provide patients with correct medical information. The administration of placebos can be beneficial to patient even though it seems as if dishonesty is necessary from a position where deception is unlawful, but there are ethical methods to use the placebo effect justly, and without wrong doing. There is not one concrete definition of a placebo. Placebos are fake medical treatments disguised as, for example, as a pill, a shot, ointments, or even fake surgery that is inactive and truly does nothing at all (Moerman). In the past, placebos such as sugar pills or vitamins were prescribed to please a patient requesting medication if the physician did not believe any real treatment was necessary.
The Beecher cases provided an interesting insight into the way that unethical activity can be a pernicious force, and showed no institution is safe from its effects. There are several factors that should be examined when answering the question of why these highly esteemed physicians would take part in activities that most in modern day medicine would consider to be deplorable. These include: physician’s prejudices against their patients, possible ethical ideologies the doctor may have warped to fit their agendas, and the fact that sometimes the quest for recognition that is often a driving force behind scientific discovery can trump the welfare of individuals. These reasons are in no means exhaustive, and it is likely that for each of the cases