The Discovery Of Integrated Circuits

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Discovery of Integrated circuits (microchip or simply ‘chip’) have revolutionized the world of electronics. Today, Integrated circuits are used in almost all electronic devices that we use. The basic building block of these microchips is Silicon. However, advancements in technology have given rise to an interdisciplinary area which uses DNA instead of Silicon to perform computations and store data. This new technology is known as “DNA Computing”. Though DNA computing is still in its infancy stage, researchers believe that one day DNA might be integrated on to a microchip to create the so-called ‘bio-chip’ which will make computers even more faster and energy efficient. This term paper is organized as following sections: • Introduction • What is DNA Computing? • Advantages • Limitations • Conclusion 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Why DNA Computing? Silicon is the second most abundant element in the Earth’s crust next to oxygen. The abundance and semiconductor properties have made Silicon the ideal element in the manufacture of computer chips for more than 50 years. Over these 50 years manufacturers have been successful in making silicon-based chips smaller, more complex and faster than their predecessors. However, there is a limitation to how small, compact and fast the silicon computer chips can be. According to Moore’s law [3], the number of transistors on a chip double every 18 months. The law is named after Gordon E. Moore, co-founder of the Intel Corporation, who described the trend in his 1965 paper. Moore’s prediction has proven to be accurate so far. If the current trend continues to 2020, the number of transistors on a chip would reach 32 billion (Figure 1). Figure 1: Moore’s law graph Moore’s law is now used in the semiconductor... ... middle of paper ... ...such that we only have the ones that are five cities long. To accomplish this task we use a technique called Gel Electrophoresis, which is a common procedure used to separate molecules based on their size. In this technique, DNA is passed through a gel matrix by using an electric field. The gel in the gel matrix is a cross linked polymer that forms a meshwork of linked strands. DNA molecules are generally negatively charged, so when placed in an electric field they are attracted towards the positive terminal. Since the DNA strands should travel through the gel matrix, the rate at which the strands can travel highly depends on the length of the strand. That is, DNA strands of shorter length travel quickly when compared to strands of more length as shown in Figure 6. Typically we end up with different DNA bands where each band corresponds to a particular length DNA.

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