The Digestive and Urinary Systems

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Digestive and Urinary System

Lesson 1: The Digestive System


q Digestion:

q Absorption:

q Elimination:

q Mastication:

q Peristalsis:

q Gastric Juices:

q Bile:

Functions of the Digestive System:

q Digestion, Absorption, and Elimination.

q Digestion occurs in the digestive tract which includes:

1. Mouth: Mastication occurs and enzymes produced by salivary glands starts digesting carbohydrates.

2. Esophagus: 10 in. long and extends from the pharynx to the stomach. Food moves down the esophagus by the peristalsis. The sphincter, a circular muscle at the entrance of the stomach opens and closes to allow food to enter the stomach.

3. Stomach: Holds about 1qt of food for 3-4 hours and controls the rate at which it enters the small intestine. It also produces Chyme and Gastric Juices.

4. Small Intestine: 20ft (6m) long, 1in (2.5cm) in diameter. Consist of 3 parts the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Intestinal juice, secretions from the liver and pancreas complete chemical breakdown.

5. Large Intestine (Colon): 2.5in (6cm) in diameter and 5-6ft (1.5-1.8m) long. The main function of the large intestine is the elimination of waste and the absorption of water. The water is absorbed into the bloodstream

Other Organs that aid Digestion

q The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are essential for the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

1. Liver: the largest gland in the body

q Weighs about 3.5 lbs.

q Dark reddish brown color

q Over 500 functions

q Produces bile

q Converts sugar glucose to glycogen and stores it

q Maintains level of glucose in the blood

q Changes harmful to less harmful toxins

q Stores vitamin A, D, E, K, B12, and Iron

2. Gallbladder: Small sac about 3-4 in. (7-10cm) long

q Stores bile until food moves from the stomach into the duodenum of the small intestine.

3. Pancreas: a gland of the digestive and endocrine system.

q Produces insulin

q Produces 3 digestive enzymes:

1. trypsin: digest protein

2. amylase: digest carbohydrates

3. lipase: digest fats

q These enzymes are released into the small intestines through ducts.

Lesson 2: Problems and care of the Digestive Systems


q Indigestion:

q Hiatal hernia:

q Gallstones:

q Peptic ulcers:

q Gastritis:

q Appendicitis:

q Hepatitis:

Common Functional Problems:

q Halitosis: (bad breath), can result from disorders of the teeth and gums caused from poor oral health care.

q Indigestion: occurs when your body doesn’t properly breakdown foods. This can be caused by eating too much ,eating too fast, or by indulging in an excess of alcohol.

q Heartburn: occurs when acid content from the stomach backs up into the esophagus. If a person has hiatal hernia they may experience heartburn.

q Gas: a certain amount of gas in the stomach or intestine is normal but some foods can cause an excess of gas.

q Nausea and Vomiting: this can be caused by motion, pathogens, medicines, drugs, and other substances in the stomach. Nausea precedes vomiting. Vomiting is reverse peristalsis.
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