This paper begins by providing information regarding bipolar disorder and then opens up to include substance abuse and dependence as a co-occurring disorder. With the two presented, the bulk of this paper hopefully provides some insight into why treatment of these co-occurring disorders is ineffectual. As of yet, research has not provided us with useful insight into the relationship between the two disorders. We continue to ask questions related to which was first or if they result from something else. Hence, the genus for this type of comorbid condition is not easily identifiable; therefore it is quite understandable that it cannot be easily treated.
The discussion has, however, been characterized by conflicting claims, resulting in a debate over what should be used rather than us having definite conclusion of how patients are best helped. The extensive research of Elkin et al (1989) concluded that cognitive therapy was not an effective treatment method for severely depressed outpatients. This had a major impact on the treatment guidelines of The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, resulting in medications becoming generally favored at the time. These results, the quality of the therapy provided as well as the conclusions drawn have, however, been questioned by contradicting research which instead argue that cognitive therapy is just as effective in the treatment of depression. Hollon et al (1992) conducted a randomized trial which displayed both treatment methods as effective, with a non-significant difference of efficacy.
Along with the thought and affect, there is also cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms of cognitive dysfunction are attention, memory, and learning difficulties. Although genetic vulnerabilities for schizophrenia are believed to exist, they have yet to identify a single genetic determinant (Tamminga, 2003). Earlier studies of interventions for schizophrenia were almost entirely biological. These studies called controlled clinical trials were not successful; the sample sizes were too small and did not provide useful data.
Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry. 157: 1552-1562. Vanderkooy JD, Kennedy SH, Bagby RM. 2002.
Frequently, when schizophrenic patients take their prescribed medication they take other medication that either compound or negate their prescribed medication effects. There is currently no cure for the disorder, although medicines often help, especially with positive symptoms. Some positive symptoms include “Form” or disorganization of ideas and speech so that the listener cannot understand, or incoherence, “Content”, or bizarre and delusional ideas like “the Government is tapping into my head and reading my thoughts”. A lack of insight on their own problem... ... middle of paper ... ...f paranoid ideation, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 106-113 5) Kuipers, E., Garety, P., Fowler, D., Dunn, G. Bebbington, P., Freeman, D. & Hadley, C. (1997) London-East, Anglia randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis, British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 319-327. 6) Levin, S., Yurgelun-Todd, D. and Craft, S. (1989).
Is There a Real Difference Between a Neurosis and a Psychosis A major part of clinical psychology is the diagnoses and treatment of mental disorders. This can often be difficult and controversial due to the fact that many of the disorders can be confused with others; there aren’t always clear guidelines in which to follow. An example of this confusion can be seen in the disorders Neurosis and Psychosis. Neither neurosis nor psychoses appear as major categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). The main reason for this is that both categories were fairly broad and included a number of mental disorders with quite dissimilar symptoms.
Management of Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder when individuals experience episodes of mania and depression. The medications used in treating bipolar disorder have been effective when properly diagnosed, but there is a risk of suicide while undergoing therapy. Treatments for bipolar disorder our on the market but they can only treat the mania or the depression, which is why the patient needs to be under supervision. When a person does not follow the prescribed course of treatment the risk of suicide increases. Another problem with bipolar disorder is that it can be misdiagnosed in teenagers in going though puberty.
(1999). Clinical outcome in a randomized 1-year trial of clozapine versus treatment as usual for patients with treatment-resistant illness and a history of mania. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(8): 1164-9. (N) Thase M. E., Sachs G. S. (2000). Bipolar depression: pharmacotherapy and related therapeutic strategies.
A randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for persistent symptoms in schizophrenia resistant to medication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57: 165-172 Watts FN, Powell GE, Austin SV. 1973. The modification of abnormal beliefs. British Journal of Medical Psychology 46: 359–363.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Wu RR, Zhao JP, Liu ZN, Zhai JG, Guo XF, Guo WB, et al. (2006). Effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on glucose-insulin homeostasis and lipid metabolism in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 186(4): 572-578.