During the Revolutionary War, on June 12, 1776, the Second Continental Congress representing all of the thirteen colonies under British control assembled a draft of the Articles of Confederation; the first of two doctrines that resulted in the eventual unification of the divided colonies, establishment of a self government, and the ratification of today’s U.S. Constitution. The first U.S. constitutional doctrine ever written were the Articles of Confederation, composed during a time when the thirteen British colonies were still in a Revolutionary war with Great Britain. On November 15, 1777 after a year of debate, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. It didn’t become effective though, until it was ratified by all thirteen states in 1781; a task that proved to be difficult after some states refused to cooperate. Under the Articles of Confederation the British colonies were to unite, become individual self-sovereign states, and distinguish themselves as the United States of America.
By throwing off the British monarchy it left the states without a central government. The states needed a new government and fast, which paved way for the first constitution, the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation was started on November 15th 1777, and was in force on March 1, 1781. It was written to bring a union between the 13 states: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The article was written in the early part of the American Revolution by the committee of the second continental congress, because of the wars with Great Britain and the experience they have had with them.
The Constitution established the structure of the Government and a written set of rules to stabilizes the conduct of the government . The Constitution was ratified in 1788 in Philadelphia. After long diatribe and political battle between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists, they finally came to and Agreement. The Constitution divided the national government into three branches; Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. The government is based upon the principles of separation of powers and checks and balances even though in practice many powers and functions interchanged and are shared.
Our government has been shaped and molded from an unsuccessful government to a highly sufficient government. There are many contributors to our government. Many of the top contributors include; The Articles of Confederation, Thomas Paine's Common Sense, Early State Constitutions, The Annapolis convention, And Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of independence ( the Preamble). In 1754, during the Revolutionary War the Continental congress created the Articles of Confederations, as a format for a United Government. The Articles of Confederation linked the 13 states together to deal with common problems, but in practice they did more than provide a legal basis for the limited authority that the Continental Congress was already excercising.
The Articles were scratched off in the Philadelphia Convention of 1786, and a brand new constitution was drafted. The "Great Compromise" was established during this conference, which established a bicameral congress. Furthermore, the government was divided into three branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial branch. A system of checks and balances was also implemented to equalize the powers of the government. Along with these establishments, the nation came a republic.
INTRODUCTION TO FEDERALISM Federalism is the form of government in the united states where separate states are united under one central authority but with specific powers granted to both components in a written constitution .Patrick Henry coined the word in 1788 when, during the Virginia ratification convention debates over the proposed U.S Constitution ,he angrily asked, “Is this federalism?.’’ In 1787 the constitution replaced it with another, more balanced, version that has worked for over two centuries. During the time, however the history of federalism has been incessantly disrupted by a constant debate between those who wanted to enlarge the central government and those who demanded that states’ rights be strictly respected and even expanded. During Reconstruction the war argument over the use of federal power erupted in violence against newly enfranchised blacks and Republican government in the South .In the late nineteenth century the federal government retreated from its temporary expansion of power in saving the Union and trying to remake the South. Whether in tolerating state created racial segregation or striking down federal efforts to regulate the new industrial order, the federal courts limited federal authority in many areas of public life. At the beginning of the twentieth century progressive reformers wanted to enlarge the role of the federal government and solve glaring economic and social problems.
Prior to the Constitution, the thirteen states were bound together by the Articles of Confederation. These were in essence a military alliance between sovereign nations adopted to better fight the Revolutionary War. 11. Bill of Rights: the first ten amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in 1791 and guaranteeing such rights as the freedoms of speech, assembly, and worship. Critical to United States History.
The Articles of Confederation on November 15, 1777 were accepted by Congress, but not ratified by all the states until March 1, 1781, Maryland was the last state to ratify. The Articles were a humble attempt to form a national government by a new country trying to unite itself. The Articles of Confederation, however, wanted the states to have the majority of the power. The Articles government was very weak, but this was done on purpose, because after finally gaining independence from Britain, they feared that a strong central government would lead to an empowerment of another monarchy. Alexander Hamilton called for a convention to be held in Massachusetts to advise congress to “render the constitution”.
Federalism guarded against tyranny, provided military security, and reduced fighting amongst states. When the colonies declared their independence from Britain in 1786, the framers at the Constitution Convention attempted to balance the perceived tyranny. As a result, federalism was created in order to preserve freedom while still maintain order as a new nation. “The Federalist Paper No.51” by James Madison stated, “In the compound republic of America, the power surrendered by the people is first divided between two distinct governments, and then the portion allotted to each subdivided among distinct and separate departments. Hence a double security arises to the rights of the people.
When the Federalist party was organized in 1791, those people who favored a strong central government and a loose constitutional interpretation coagulated and followed the ideals of men such as Alexander Hamilton. The first opposition political party in the United States was the Republican party, which held power, nationally, between 1801 and 1825. Those who were in favor of states rights and a strict construction of the constitution fell under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson. These Jeffersonian republicans, also known as anti-federalists, believed in strict adherence to the writings of the constitution. They wanted state’s rights and individual rights, which they believed could only be granted under strict construction of the constitution.