Introduction Tuberculosis infects over 8 million people per year. Nearly 2 million people die each year from complications due to being plagued with the organism that causes tuberculosis1. Tuberculosis is the second most common cause of death worldwide from an infectious agent1. While incidence numbers are slowly declining with regards to tuberculosis, new barriers to effective treatment are presenting themselves. One such challenge is the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug-resistant (XDR) forms of the disease.
Introduction Tuberculosis is one of the major health problems in the world and accounts for a large number of deaths. Statistics show that roughly one third of the world’s population is infected with the bacillus, and it is responsible for 8 to 12 million cases of active tuberculosis each year, and 3 million deaths [1. Raviglione M. C. 1995]. TB can be classified as being latent or active TB. Latent TB is described as the bacteria being present in the body but is inactive.
Pneumonia was linked to community-acquired infections with AND while OR was used to link adrenal cortex hormones to glucocorticoids. These searches were combined with AND th... ... middle of paper ... ...Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-aquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(suppl 2):s27-s72. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/citmgr?gca=cid;44/Supplement_2/S27.
Malaria is an infectious disease that kills close to a million children every year (Miller, Ackerman, Su, & Wellems, 2013). Although there are several different species of malaria this paper is going to be addressing Plasmodium falciparum, the most fatal of the species. The parasitic infection of P. falciparum can lead to many negative effects including death. This paper will explore the ways in which the disease in contracted, the risk factors as well as the pathogenesis of the parasite and ultimately the potential treatment options based on the progression of the disease process. Causative Agent, Mode of Transmission and Risk Factors P. falciparum is a protozoan parasite that once it has infected its human host causes the disease known as Malaria (Lehne, 2013, p.1238).
Expert Rev Vaccines 10, 299-306 (2011). 4. Hill, P.C. et al. Longitudinal assessment of an ELISpot test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
bacteria, virus, fungus, toxins). While viral or aseptic meningitis only need supportive treatment, bacterial meningitis is one of the ten most common causes of death by infectious disease killing approximately 135,000 people a year (Waghdhare, Kalantri, Joshi, & Kalantri, 2010). Pathophysiology In order to infect the meninges, pathogens must cross the blood brain barrier. According to Myers, Director of Infection Control at Scripps Mercy hospital (2000), pathogens enter through an open wound, surgical incision, or a mucus membrane. Systemic infections can also result in meningitis (Huether & McCance, 2012) with typical invasion occurring through the middle ear or during respiratory tract infections (Myers, 2000).
(2001, April). The Molecular Basis of Resistance to Isoniazid, Rifampin, and Pyrazinamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Respiratory Research. 7-27-05: http://respiratory-research.com/content/2/3/164 (2005). Pathology of TB.