In the three readings by Loffreda, Johnson and Gladwell, minor factors are conquered in order to prevent their cities from entering a negative pattern that can lead to the decline of a city. By setting positive examples in the city, it can lead to positive patterns and imitation. The Tipping Points unraveling in the epidemics that lead to the “crime” focus on the environment rather than the actual people involved. But is this true lately? Since the theory suggests the solution to “minor” problems, it is leading to unlawful arrests and even murders by law enforcement officials.
In the article excellence in problem-oriented policing it stated “researchers and practitioners have focused on the evaluation of problems, the importance of solid analysis, the development of pragmatic responses, and the need to strategically engage other resources (Goldstein, 2001, Pg. 3).” The problem-oriented policing have been among discussions regarding the way they respond to crimes and techniques to prevent it. Lastly, the order maintenance model focus more on the nature issues such as vandalism or any types of drug dealing. Their main goal is to reduce crime and maintain order in the community. This is the police who might use aggressive force on serious crimes.
Criminal Activity Then and Now Criminal justice is composed of many lateral departments that help us as a society to better understand the process that is started when criminal activity is suspected. We will examine how individuals learn how to commit crime and what motivates them to do so. This paper will discuss the steps that are taken once a crime is determine and how the Criminal Justice System is put into place to help solve and come to some type of resolution for the crime. This paper will further discuss the types of deterrence that are placed into society minds to help curve criminal behavior and activity. After reading this paper the reader should have a better understanding on how the Criminal Justice System works and why it is needed help promote a safe environment for our society.
The Chief also stresses the importance of a working relationship with community citizens as well as with businesses and city departments. Overall, CPD has had a proven success rate in the methods used in crime prevention and problem solving. The CIRV Initiative One program, Cincinnati’s Initiative to Reduce Violence or (CIRV), (Ceasefire), targets the gun violence in the city. CIRV offers intervention for youth who have fallen into the gang culture. CIRV also offers youth an alternative to the gang way of life through a variety of social interventions.
Overall, crime displacement is the result of crime-control policies and the amount of opportunities left for offenders. It can potentially be a profitable theory because of the benefits, such as helping to plan strategies in order to prevent crime, but without a doubt is a part of crime prevention that cannot be avoided.
Deterrence theories rely on criminal prosecutions to prevent corporate crime after the crime has already been committed (ex-post), where as compliance theories focus regulatory agencies that encourage compliance with the law before the crime takes place (ex-ante). 3.1 Deterrence Theory Deterrence theory argues that individuals act in accordance with their self-interest and obey the law because they fear the penalties of criminal behavior. More often than not, they choose not to commit crimes because they have seen harsh punishments imposed on others. Current research on deterrence emphasizes the role of the criminal justice system enforcing and punishing offenders. The fear of detection, conviction, and punishment resulting from prosecution forms the core of deterrence theory.
This is done by slowly altering social behaviours and looking at the social upbringing and social structure people are exposed to. The Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity Theory is a preventative model that also correlates with the secondary model, focusing on the large causes of criminal events and the major principles, which can be enforced to divert them (Ekblom 2010). The third stage is tertiary, dealing with offenders who have already commit crimes and deterring them from offending again through the criminal justice system. This is where community corrections come into play by offering programs for offenders and numerous sentences that can be sensibly administered to offenders with supervision (Lab 2010). In order for crime prevention and its correlating models to be effective, it’s important to understand the extent of its impact across different locations and contexts.
First is the environmental crime prevention that finds to replace the particular attitudes of the communities that may result in criminal actions (Crawford, 1998). They study on what specific reasons why people commit crime. However, they consider the environment as the most influential factors of committing a crime, so they are focusing on how to reduce crime by targeting the possible causes of crimes or possible opportunities that criminals can get into. Second, situational crime prevention, perhaps it is based upon the evidence that crime is often resourceful and aims to modify on related factor to limit the opportunities for offender to engage criminal behavior (Tonry and Farrington, 1995; Cornish & Clarke, 2003). This study specified the actions or measures that prioritize the importance of focusing the very specific opportunities of crime in a certain circumstances.
The police therefore work with the community instead of working against the community, to curb the crime. This decentralization results in police officers handling social and physical problems in the community. As a result, the criminal activities in the area decline. This boosts an improvement in the quality of life to the members of the community. Also, it builds the image of police force in that the police end up being effective and reliable agents of fighting crime (Campbell police department, 2003).
The outputs of policing that include number of arrests, volume of recovered property, number of citations issued, response times and the other stats of policing play a more i... ... middle of paper ... ...mmander is then praised for his success in lower crime. However, I feel that this alienates the police from a community. If the police implement aggressive tactic in an area, the public often perceives this in almost a military sweep. The cops are seen as the bad guys that only come in to arrest the criminals and then go on their way to other high crime areas. If CompStat identified the high crime areas and then used community policing tactics to permanently rid the underlying problems of crime in that However the hierarchy of the New York City Police Department chooses to deal with these two new tactics in policing will change the course of our city.