30 July 2005: http://www.nature.com/cgi- taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v392/n6674/full/392317a0_r.html&filetype=&dynoptions= Willgoos, Christine. (2001). FDA regulation: an answer to the questions of human cloning and germline gene therapy. American Journal of Law & Medicine, (volume 27), page 101. Wivel, Nelson A. et al.
It involves the genetic modification of germ cells that will pass the change on to the next generation (Wilson, 1997). This type of gene therapy only has to be done one time to be permanent. One type of germline therapy is to treat a pre-embryo that carries a serious genetic defect before it is placed back in the mother by in vitro fertilization. Another germline therapy is to treat adult sperm and egg cells so the genetic defect is not passed on to children (Coutts, 1998). If a genetic change occurs, it will ... ... middle of paper ... ...ed age where they will be able to understand the effects of the therapy, they should then be allowed to make their own decision.
Oakley, A. From Walking Wombs to Test Tube Babies. In: STANWORTH, M. (ed) (1987) Reproductive Technologies: Gender, Motherhood and Medicine. Polity Sailly (1980) cited in Cunningham-Burley S. & McKegany, N. P. (eds) (1990) Readings in Medical Sociology. Scambler, G. (1991) Sociology As Applied To Medicine (3rd ed.)
(13) "Medicine and the New Genetics" www.onrl.gov/hgmis/resource/medicine.html. Nov. 15, 1999. (14) Wexler, Nancy S. "Clairvoyance and Caution." Harvard University Press, 1992.
10-16-00 In the article that I chose there are two opposing viewpoints on the issue of “Should Human Cloning Ever Be Permitted?” John A. Robertson is an attorney who argues that there are many potential benefits of cloning and that a ban on privately funded cloning research is unjustified and that this type of research should only be regulated. On the flip side of this issue Attorney and medical ethicist George J. Annas argues that cloning devalues people by depriving them of their uniqueness and that a ban should be implemented upon it. Both express valid points and I will critique the articles to better understand their points. John A. Robertson’s article “Human Cloning and the Challenge of Regulation” raises three important reasons on why there shouldn’t be a ban on Human Cloning but that it should be regulated. Couples who are infertile might choose to clone one of the partners instead of using sperm, eggs, or embryo’s from anonymous donors.
The crux of the PCR procedure involves three s... ... middle of paper ... ...’Med J Aust. 2001 Oct 15;175(8):418-21(PubMed): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11700835&dopt=Abstract 11 ‘DNA Testing for Hereditary Hemochromatosis’: Molecular Genetic Testing in Mainstream Medicine (Vol. 14: Spring, 1997) http://www.mostgene.org/gd/gdvol14c.htm 12 http://www.aiddiagnostika.com/english/kits/GenID/rdb_2045e_haemochromatosis.htm 13 http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/179_10_171103/ger10460_fm-2.html 14 Marion K. Stott, Andrew P. Fellowes, Jeff D. Upton, Michael J. Burt and Peter M. Georgea : ‘Simple Multiplex PCR for the Simultaneous Detection of the C282Y and H63D Hemochromatosis (HFE) Gene Mutations’ http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/45/3/426 15 http://bip.weizmann.ac.il/mb/bioguide/pcr/PCRwhat.html 16 http://allserv.rug.ac.be/~avierstr/principles/pcr.html 17 Alka Dwivedi, B.C. Sarin, Dev Mittar, P.K. Sehajpal: (2003) ‘Optimization of 38kDA based PCR assay for detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical samples’ 18 McPherson, M.J.(Author).
"Genetic Testing: A Conceptual Exploration", Journal of Medical Ethics, Apr 99, Vol 25 p. 151-155. Web Resources: Web1: "Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis" [Online] Available: http://www.religioustolerance.org/abo_pgd.htm [November 1999]. Web 2: "The implications of Genetic Testing for Employment" [Online] Available: http://www.dti.gov.uk/hgac/ [issued July 1999]. Web 3: Merriam Webster Dictionary [Online] Available: http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary .
<http://www.cancernet.nci.nih.gov/clinpdq/therapy/Questions_and_Answers_About_Gene_Therapy.htm>. Rubanyi, G. (2001). The Future of Human Gene Therapy. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 22,3, pp.
The double helix DNA splits into two strands, and each separated strand acts as a new strand of DNA with its own complete genome. Second, DNA is transcribed to mRNA during a process called Transcription. The mRNA carries the information needed for protein synthesis. Lastly, Translation occurs where mRNA directs protein synthesis with the assistance of the tRNA. (ATDBio, n.d.) Figure 1: Replication, Transcription and Translation (Childs, 2001) The study of replication, transcription and translation of genetic material is known as molecular biology.
Food and Drug Administration Publication. http://ww.fda.gov/fdac/features/795_antibio.html September, 1995. 2) Levy, S., Bittner, M., and Salyers, A. “Ask the Experts”. Scientific American: http://www.sciam.com/askexpert/medicine/medice15.html.