The man credited with the birth of the classical school was Cesaer Beccaria (1738-1794), who emerged during the enlightenment period of the eighteenth century. Some argue that criminology as an independent discipline only emerged about 60 – 70 years ago (Garland 2002), and whilst not concerned with studying criminals per se in the same way that we most associate with criminology today, the classical school was hugely influential in the formation of Criminal Justice System as we know it today.
Cesare Beccaria’s Enlightenment principle that judicial law should ensure a trial while abiding by the natural rights of the accused. In Beccaria’s work On Crimes and Punishments, Beccaria articulated that it was the government’s duty to make laws and punishments that would aim to hamper crime. Beccaria opposed torture and capital punishment as penalties, since he felt that these practices violated natural rights. The Jacobins of the “Reign of Terror” acted in an antithetical manner from Enlightenment
people from different disciplines and each tries to explain different aspects of criminality and elements within the penal system. The classical school of criminology mainly refers to the eighteenth century work by two prominent philosophers, Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. By looking at their ideas on free will, deterrence theories and the development of both into the modern world, it is possible to view the changes that have occurred which partly share the views of these theories. Other figures
After years of trying to locate the origins of crime and delinquency within society the Jacksonians came to the conclusion that crime was the fault of the environment, not a permanent or inevitable phenomenon. As a result America set out to protect the safety of society and to achieve unprecedented success in eradicating deviancy. This analysis of the origin of crime became a ‘rallying cry to action’ and according to Rothman was directly responsible for the invention of the penitentiary. The Penitentiary
strong supporter of the notion that "punishment for the sake of deterrence is justified", and this is because people tend to obey the law after calculating the consequences attached by the law to a particular act of crime. Punishing a person for a crime in order to deter others from performing the same crime again does not guarantee us that the crime will never be performed by anyone at all, but it definitely lowers the number of people who would commit the same crime in future. In some instances deterrence