In the first Crusade, Christians recaptured Palestine, but in the later Crusades, they fought to protect Palestine or recover parts of it that had been lost to Muslim forces. There is a traditional numbering scheme for the Crusades which total 9 during the 11th and 13th centuries. Each Crusade has an important event that took place during that time. During the first Crusade in March 1095, ambassadors from the council of Piacenza called for others because they needed help defending Byzantine against the Seljuk Turks. Later on, Pope Urban ll asked the Christians to join a war against the Turks.
In 1095, Pope Urban the second, was the one who declared religious war against the Muslims now known as the Crusades. In order to get an army, plenary indulgences was offered to anyone who joined resulted in tens of thousands joining in on the campaign. This meant that anyone who joined was “cleansed” of their sins by the Pope which helped believers be more pure in the spiritual world. The crusades began in the late eleventh century by the Western European Christians. These Europeans went with armies to take back the Holy Lands which is modern day Israel, or as the Jews and Christians refer to as Palestine.
On the 27th of November in 1095 at the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II called for a Crusade to free the holy sites of Jerusalem from muslim domination (they had been under muslim control for 4 centuries). The pope tried to capitalise on a rising, religious awakening and seize the reins of christianity from the rising power of sovereigns. Jerusalem is the objective of the crusades. To capture Jerusalem and its holy saints, namely the Holy Sepulchre, Christ's tomb. From 1096 to 1291 thousands of christians from the latin west headed to Palestine convinced that their salvation would come in liberating Christ's place of rest.
The Turks slowly began to regain control of the Holy Land. They united and began to take back cities that were captured as a result the Second Crusade began. King Louis VII and Conrad III led armies to Damascus but they failed to recapture the city and the Turks still held power. In 1187 Saladin, a Muslim leader, gained control of Jerusalem. Frederick Barbarossa, King Philip II, and King Richard I led armies to take back the Holy Land in the Third Crusade.
The Turks destroyed the Byzantines in 1071 and the Turks became Muslims. They made it hard for Christian Pilgrims to get to the holy places. In 1095, the emperor of Byzantine, Alexius Conneus asked Pope Urban II for assistance in fighting the Turks. Urban wanted Christianity defended against the Muslims. Urban also wanted more power and prestige for himself.
Contact between the Crusaders and the relatively more sophisticated civilizations of the Byzantines and the Muslims would continue for the next 100 years and become major factor in ending the cultural isolation of western Europe. THE SECOND CRUSADE - Less than 50 years after the First Crusade, the Seljuks conquered part of the Crusader states in Palestine. Pope Eugenius IV called for a Second Crusade to regain the territory. Eloquent sermons by the monk Bernard of Clairvaux persuaded King Louis VII of France and Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III to lead armies to Palestine. The Second Crusade, which lasted from A.D. 1147 to A.D. 1149, was unsuccessful.
For the first time all the peoples of Christendom, speaking different languages and separated from each other until now, were united in a common enterprise. Christendom had picked up the sword against Islam, and the war went on for more than three centuries and some two million human beings perished in it (Lamb vii, viii). Pope Urban II, in a speech at Clermont in France in November 1095, called for a great Christian expedition to free Jerusalem from the Seljuk Turks, a new Muslim power that had recently begun actively harassing peaceful... ... middle of paper ... ... Doubleday, 1991. Billings, Malcolm. The Cross and the Crescent.
The Crusades initiated in 1095. It was the time, when Christians’ armies from Western Europe reacted to pleas of Pope Urban II to enter a battle in opposition to forces of Muslim in Holy Land. After the accomplishment of objective of initial Crusade had accomplished, which was Jerusalem’s capture in 1099; the attacking Christians established many states of Latin Christians. In response to this accomplishment of Christians, the Muslims in Jerusalem also declared to initiate holy war i.e. called “jihad”, in order to retain control and power over the city.
“Glory be to Islam who took the city of Jerusalem,” or so they thought. The first Crusade began in 1076 as the Muslim Turks invaded the city and took over. The Turks shunned Christian pilgrims who visited the holy land, making a holy war between Christians and Muslims. From all over Europe great nobles, clergy, and peasants began preparing for the trip to fight for Jerusalem. Over the next 30 years, Christians and Muslims made a ping pong game out of Jerusalem.
Richard the Lionhearted was the leader for the Third Crusade (Christians). Richard was on the journey to conquer Jerusalem from Saladin (Muslim). Saladin had no intention in giving up Jerusalem for it had been fought over for many years. The Crusades intentions were to take back the Holy Land (Jerusalem). Jerusalem had been taken by the First Crusade and the European’s kingdom was built on its ruins.