introduction The 2008 financial crisis led to a sharp increase in mortgage foreclosures primarily subprime leading to a collapse in several mortgage lenders. Recurrent foreclosures and the harms of subprime mortgages were caused by loose lending practices, housing bubble, low interest rates and extreme risk taking (Zandi, 2008). Additionally, expert analysis on the 2008 financial crisis assert that the cause was also due to erroneous monetary policy moves and poor housing policies. The federal government encouraged the expansion of risky mortgages to under-qualified borrowers. Congress pushed for the support of affordable housing through extended procurement of non-prime loans for applicants with low income (Zandi, 2008).
Frederic Mishkin makes the point in the text, The Economics of Money Banking, and Financial Markets (2010) that “Banks and other financial institutions are what make financial markets work. Without them, financial markets would not be able to move funds from people who save to people who have productive investment opportunities.” (p.7). The movement of funds between savers and those with productive investment opportunities is the means of creating growth. When people lose confidence in the economy this activity freezes or weakens, consequently, asset prices decline, unemployment rises and companies default as was the case of Lehman Brothers in 2008. The freezing of the flow of money is a financial crisis.
This was seen in the housing market when adjustable mortgage rates went up. People could not afford their payments any longer and their homes went into foreclosure. This drove home values down, which lowered homeowners’ equity against which they could borrow, causing panic and a dramatic decrease in spending. Unemployment can also be directly affected by the Federal Reserve. If the Federal rate goes up, there will be less spending which ... ... middle of paper ... ...ll have some immediate consequences on the economy, but I believe that these will even out in the short term as our country begins to get back on its feet.
This led to overvalued estate and unsustainable mortgage debt. (McConnell, Brue, Flynn, 2012). The recession officially began when the 8 trillion dollar housing bubble burst. (State of Working America, 2012) Prior to that, institutions bundled mortgage debt into derivatives that were sold to financial investors. Derivatives were initially intended to manage risk and to protect against the downside, but the investors used them to take on more risk to maximize their profits and returns.
Ocaya (2012) state that the credit crisis is a financial market or economic meltdown of borrowing the funds to the borrower and cannot get back, it evaluated by severe shortage of money or credit bring accumulation of bad debts, defaults and falling financial institutions among others. However, the experts and economists are unclear as what form a credit crisis. The Wall Street defines a credit crisis as a “period during which borrowed funds are difficult to get and, even if funds can find, interest rates are very high”. Credit crisis mostly began in 2007. The effect of the credit crisis has brought fall down on the housing market in some country resulting in foreclosures and unemployment.
Sub prime lending means making loans that are in the riskiest category of consumer loans. It is lending to borrowers with bad credit, limited debt experience, a history of missed payments and recorded bankruptcies. With a subprime loan there’s a higher risk that the lender doesn’t get paid back, and so a higher interest rate is charged due to the greater risk for the lender. Between 1997 and 2006, the price of the typical American house increased by 124%. Many people assumed that this trend of increasing housing prices would persist.
The History According to Arnold (2009, p.803-809), subprime mortgage defaults in the United States was the first problem in this current financial crisis, then bubbled damaging cris... ... middle of paper ... ...tion. Firstly, the Fair Value Accounting is not always accurate in the financial market because the value of assets and liabilities always fluctuated. Sometimes, the asset value is overestimate and underestimates. Secondly, the Fair Value Accounting makes financial institution reduce their ability to face the risk because in this current economic situation the value assets are fluctuated. It is a problem to managers to sell or buy the assets.
Due to developing countries not being able to make any trades, countries then begin to see a dramatic change in the economy. The article “The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries” by Bruno Gurtner, explained the main causes of why developing countries are still going through the financial crisis phase. Bruno Gurtner simply states, “the crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty” (Gurtner, 2008). However, Gurtner discovered, since the financial crisis has been hitting developing countries hard, it begins to cause a regression in economic growth in those poor countries. Gurtner found that “Marco-economically the crisis manifested…in trade and payment balances, dwindling currency reserves, currency devaluations, increasing rates of inflation, higher indebtedness and soaring public budget deficits” (Gurtner, 2008).
It has left individuals and companies facing potentially higher interest costs, or struggling to get access at all.” The credit crunch can occur for several reasons such as; “sudden increase in interest rates, direct money controls by the government or drying up of funding the capital market”, (www.thismoney.co.uk). According to the Times Online, “years of lending increased a huge debt bubble; people were borrowing ‘cheap money” and properties. The crunch began in summer 2007, where lending to low-income Americans opened a wave of financial problems. As a result banks were not lending money to consumers and one another. Furthermore, it became a worldwide phenomenon; “the way the debt was sold on to investors gave the crisis global significance.
When demand is strong interest rates are high, so investment projects with lower returns fail to make the bar. Hall’s explanation for the fall of the economy after a financial crisis is financial friction; he expresses the term friction to mean a cost to one side of a transaction that is not a benefit to the other side. Hall explains that the dominant view among macroeconomists today is that a financial crisis causes real economic activity to collapse by raising friction. He proves the validity of this statement by referring to a journal ‘Handbook of Macroeconomics’. Hall particularly refers to a chapter by Bernanke, Gertler and Gilchrist where he portrays the first issue generated by financial friction.