France would never forget this and was keen for revenge. In 1875, France set up a War college “Ecole Superieure de Guerre” which implied that they were building up a strong army to attack Germany again. In 1879, the Dual Allience was formed between Germany and Austria-Hungary, although Wilhem I was afraid that it might damage relations with Russia, which had always supported Prussia. In 1881, The Emperors League was formed creating more allies for Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1882, Italy who had been waiting to see which was the stronger empire between the two sides finally joined Germany and formed the Triple allience.
As Austria-Hungary went to war against Serbia; Serbia had alliances with France, Russia, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire to join the war on their side. Germany knowing that Russia was mobilizing its army, Kaiser Wilhelm II, sent a letter to Russia’s leader. Tsar Nicholas II ignored the letter and kept on mobilizing its army. Therefore, Germany put forth the Schlieffen plan, written in 1904 by Alfred von Schlieffen. This plan’s principle was getting German troops through Belgium and then the troops into France.... ... middle of paper ... ...was an immediate cause of the assassination of the Archduke of Austria-Hungary let to how it was dealt with, July Crisis, in WW1.
World War 1: A Tragedy of Miscalculation To some extent, the outbreak of the First World War was a tragedy of miscalculation. Austria declared war on Serbia, in the hope that it would only be a short and local war. Germany had miscalculated the risk of a two-front war. Germany’s war plan – the Schlieffen Plan, inevitably involved France, Russia, Belgium and Britain. In “The war to end all wars”, Germany also did not take into calculation the ‘Domino Effect’ of the alliances between France, Russia and Britain.
Russia and Austria feared pressure on their unstable empires. In 1887 William II refused to renew the Reinsurance treaty with Russia, but continued the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. In 1894 Russia made an alliance with France, and Great Britain settled it's differences with France in the Entente Cordiale in 1904 forming the Triple Entente. The assassination, with Serbian Knowledge, of the liberal Austrian archduke Francis Ferdinan in Sarajevo in June 1914 was the spark that set off the war. Germany assured Austria full support, which resulted in an Austrian ultimatum that Serbia could not accept.
The Formation of the Alliance System from 1873 - 1907 After the Franco-Prussian War, which Bismarck, the German Chancellor started against France as a way for unification of Germany, France lost in an insulting humiliation, that she was forced to cede Alsace and Lorraine to Germany in 1871. As a result, Bismarck succeeded in uniting his country, yet, the French’s strong desire for revenge had been Bismarck’s nightmare. Knowing that Germany might probably face a two-front war (fight against France and Russia), Bismarck started a series of alliances with European powers from 1873 to 1907, in order to isolate his country’s powerful enemy, France. By the end of 1907, the Alliance System had divided the European powers into two military camps, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. The very first alliance was formed in 1873, when Kaiser William I of Germany approached Czar Alexander II of Russia and Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria.
World War I was caused in part by the two opposing alliances developed after the Franco-Prussian War. In order to diplomatically cut off ... ... middle of paper ... ...rbia on July 28, 1914. On July 29, Russia ordered a partial mobilization only against Austria-Hungary in support of Serbia, which escalated into a full mobilization. The Germans threatened war on July 31 if the Russians did not demobilize. Upon being asked by Germany what it would do in the event of a war between Russia and Germany, Francereplies that it would act in its own interests and mobilized.
Wilson protested that sinking merchant ships without protecting the lives of passengers and crews violated international law and the U.S. would hold Germany to “strict accountability” for any American causalities in such attacks. Therefore, despite President Woodrow Wilson’s wishes to stay neutral during the war, it was in the best interest of the United States to declare war in 1917 due to Austria-Hungary’s relationship, the cause and effect of the archduke’s death, and the formation of alliances based on the actions and beliefs of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Europe was in a state of open warfare, better known as World War I.
German troops broke Belgium neutrality by passing through to invade France. Seeing it as an opportunity to get rid of their greatest threat, Britain declared war on Germany on August 4 1914. For four years, Europe was engulfed in war. Although Franz Ferdinand`s assassination led declarations of war across Europe, the causes of World War I can be traced further back. Imperialism in Africa and the Balkans created tensions across Europe, while alliance systems created predetermined enemies.
World War one was a tragic war in which Woodrow Wilson attempted to return peace to Europe. The War was long and tiring but eventually ended with the Treaty of Versailles being signed at the Paris Peace Conference. The Treaty of Versailles contained President Wilson’s fourteen points, one of which was the creation of the League of Nations, which the United States Congress voted against, as to not give power over America to other countries. The treaty placed all the blame for the war on Germany, which led most Germans to be very upset about the treaty. This resentment for the treaty eventually led to the start of World War two when Hitler came to power and defied the treaty.
Formation of the Triple Alliance In 1871 two new major states of Europe had been formed—the German Empire and the kingdom of Italy. The new German Empire, under the hand of Otto von Bismarck, was steered carefully, always with an eye upon France, for the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) had left France thirsting for revenge and for recovery of the lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. 2 Germany had allied itself with Russia and Austria-Hungary in the Three Emperors’ League, but Austria-Hungary and Russia were not the best of friends, partly because they were at odds over the Balkans and partly because Russia represented the Pan-Slavic movement, whose program threatened the very existence of Austria-Hungary. The Treaty of San Stefano (1878), following the Russo-Turkish War, furthered the cause of Pan-Slavism through the creation of a large Bulgarian state and offended Austria-Hungary as well as Great Britain. A European conference (1878; see Berlin, Congress of), called to revise the treaty, caused a sharp decline in the friendship between Russia on the one hand and Austria-Hungary and Germany on the other; Bismarck formed (1879) a secret defensive alliance—the Dual Alliance—with Austria-Hungary.