The hormones secreted by the endocrine glands regulate the growth, development and function of many tissues, and coördinate the body's metabolic processes (pp. 294-296). An inadequate secretion of hormones may cause disorders in the body, which on occasion may result in serious health consequences. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, pineal gland, thymus gland, and reproductive glands (Shier et al., 2009). The pituitary gland is situated at the base of the brain and it secretes hormones that control the operation of the major endocrine glands (pp.
The hypothalamus controls both the anterior and posterior pituitary causing certain hormones to be released which allows growth, nutrition to ones unborn fetus, and body maturation. If such intricate collaboration between the hypothalamus and the posterior and pituitary gland did not exist then certain malfunctions such as pituitary dwarfism would exist. Therefore collaboration between such intricate glands must exist in order to release certain hormones for proper development, but the path the hormones must travel to reach their destination involves a hypothalamo neurohypophyseal tract and a hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. The hormones released by the posterior pituitary involving the hypothalamo neurohypophyseal system is the antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. The antidiuretic hormone effects the kidney glands controlling water secretion and water retention so therefore “regulating body fluid and mineral levels (The Pituitary Foundation, 2015).” Whereas the releasing hormone oxytocin affects the uterus and the breasts which allows the uterus to contract in child birth and the production of milk after the baby is born.
The anterior pituitary is an endocrine gland controlled by the hypothalamus in several different fashions. Releasing and release-inhibiting hormones are synthesized in the paraventricular, periventricular, and the supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. They control anterior pituitary hormone secretion. Paravocellular neurons in these nuclei send their axons into the tuberoinfundibular tract and terminate on a capillary bed of the superior hypophyseal arteries located around the base of the median eminence. A given paravocellular neuron may release one or more releasing factor into the capillaries that coalesce in six to ten small straight veins that form the hypophyseal-portal blood circulation which descends along the infundibular stalk and forms a second capillary plexus around the anterior pituitary.
( Carol A. Lange et al 2008) Estrogen (ER) Estrogen is a modulator of cellular growth and differentiation in the mammary gland. It mediates most of the function through two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, ERα and ERβ. These receptors are hormone-dependent transcriptional regulators which, in the presence of appropriate ligands, bind to EREs on DNA or interact with proteins in other pathways and affect transcription of specific genes(... ... middle of paper ... ...cer mainly targeting the ER signalling pathway either by reducing the level of estrogen , antagonizing ER function with antiestrogens such as tamoxifen or down-regulating ER levels with pure antiestrogens such as fulvestrant (Faslodex). ( Rachel Schiff et al 2003) Tamoxifen is commonly used and is a nonsteroidal SERM, which will inhibit breast cancer growth by competitive blocking of the ER, thus inhibiting estrogen-induced growth. (Elisavet Paplomata et al 2013) Tamoxifen is effective in most patients but there is a complication that causes the presence of ER that does not response to the tamoxifen result in tamoxifen resistance.
While oxytocin is associated with love, when ... ... middle of paper ... ...as harming effects. Continual studies will be able to provide a better range of oxytocin levels that are needed in order for “normal” functioning, though this range will have to take into consideration many different factors. Conclusion Oxytocin is a complex hormone that neuroscientists and endocrinologists are continually studying in order to better understand what it does but also how it can be used to treat some disorders. Williams Syndrome, Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Autism are three disorders which are currently being studied for the use of oxytocin therapy as potential treatments. However, what makes these studies particularly interesting is that the way in which oxytocin is being used in some of these disorders is the complete opposite of how it is being perceived for the others.
The Pituitary gland has many functions and regulations that are continuously functioning.However when there is a disruption in those functions there is an imbalance. Prolactinoma is an imbalance caused by a non cancerous tumor. The tumor causes the secretion of prolactin.Prolactin in a type of hormone in which normally stimulates lactation. In turn the body reacts to this hormone prolactin in more than one way. The location of the pituitary gland is in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and attaches to the hypothalamus(Marieb & Hoehn 441).
The endocrine system is a collection of glands in the body that help to control bodily metabolic activity by producing endocrine secretions. Although there are many glands in the endocrine system the main glands include the pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal glands, pineal gland, gastrointestinal tract, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Functions Hypothalamus – The hypothalamus is located in the brain. It is responsible for direct control over the entire endocrine system through the pituitary gland. Cells in the hypothalamus called neurosecretory cells secrete 7 hormones – Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH), Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRh), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), oxytocin and Antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
1998; Wilson et al. 1998) Hormones: Hormones are molecules that are produced by endocrine glands, including the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, gonads, (i.e., testes and ovaries), thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, and pancreas. The term “endocrine” implies that in response to specific stimuli, the products of those glands are
Uterine Natural Killer Cells: uNK cells, also known as decidual NK (dNK) cells are present in the decidua, which is the lining of the uterus. This lining is in close contact with fetal trophoblast cells (Fig. 1) and is necessary to separate the fetus from the maternal circulatory system. uNK cells have the CD56bright CD16- phenotype, so are similar to the less cytotoxic pNK cells. Research by Spornitz (1992) showed that uNK cells have different stages of growth (Fig.
As well as an assortment of other hormones, similar to those released when procreating, the body rewards itself for doing what the brain said to do. That is why helping others can be called the “helping high”. It is a ‘feel good hormone’ burst of energy that people crave for and people can get this good feeling from helping others. So our brains are hardwired to want to feel good from the Norepinephrine released into our