The United States has been a breeding ground for many of the major developments in the realm of internetworking. With the releases of these technologies come practical applications for them in the consumer world. Once computer networks became affordable for the general public, the World Wid...
Itu.int. 2012. Broadband Commission Open Letter to G20: Bring broadband to the world. [online] Available at: http://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2012/39.aspx#.UxIOw_ldWT8 [Accessed: 27 Feb 2014].
Interconnection is an important issue as it serves to connect numerous customers located at home and offices as well as provide valuable network for businesses. Interconnection results in end-to-end connectivity for provisioning of services to enable communication. Today’s telecommunication networks are moving beyond the traditional PSTN into IP networks which are the next-generation networks (NGN). These NGNs can be used to deliver converged services that are a combination of voice, data and video services using the same core hardware. Converged services are based on the innovative idea of bundling data, voice and video services that is capable of enhancing competition in the market. The evolution of these supreme networks and IP interconnection pose a regulatory challenge and with FCC’s involvement, it is hoped that a common ground is reached. It is imperative that FCC take a well-reasoned stand in the matter of IP-interconnection for voice services as interconnection does not simply involve technical arrangement for connecting networks but also regulatory policies and crucial business decisions. With this paper, I would like to provide a brief overview of IP-interconnection; the factors involved in this interconnection and suggest my views on the possible measures that FCC could adopt.
Digital Subscriber Line new technology that takes advantage of standard copper telephone line to provide secure, reliable, high-speed Internet access. DSL refers to the family of digital subscriber line technologies, such as ADSL, HDSL, and RADSL. Connection speed for DSL ranges from 1.44 Mbps to 512 Kbps downstream and around 128 Kbps upstream. Unlike traditional connections DSL such as analog modems and IDSN, DSL deliver continuous “always on” access. That means multimedia-rich websites, e-mail, and other online applications are available anytime. DSL makes it possible for you to remain online even while you’re talking on the telephone-without jeopardizing the quality of either connection. DSL is available in a spectrum of speeds. Some are best home use, while others are designed to accommodate rigorous business demands. Whether for business or the home, DSL, offers unsurpassed price/performance value compared to other online options. There are the five facts that one should know about DSL. It is remarkably fast. With DSL service, you can benefit from Internet speeds that are up to 12 minutes faster than a typical ISDN connection and 50 times faster than traditional 28.8 Kbps modems. This means that in the 12 seconds it takes to read this information, you could have downloaded a 2 megabyte presentation file or web photograph. It would take 10 more minutes (600 more seconds!) to download the same with a traditional 28.8 Kbps. It’s highly reliable. One can depend on DSL because its proven technology takes full advantage of the existing telecommunications infrastructure. It’s inherently secure. DSL network provides a dedicated Internet connection via private telephone wires, you can bypass dial-up intruders or shared network hackers. Unlike traditional dial-upp modems or cable modems. DSL protects your valuable data with the most secure connection available. It’s surprising affordable. DSL is widely recognized as the most cost-effective connectivity solution for small buisness. DSL delivers industrial- strength like speed to multiple users at only 25% of typical TI costs. There is no better price option available. DSL is also an exceptional value for home users. At about $2 a day for services that meets the needs of most people. The connection is always on. It’s ready to run every minute of the day. There’s no more logging on and off. No more busy signals or disconnects. This gives you the freedom to focus on what you want to accomplish on line rather than focusing on trying to get connected.
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 can be termed as a major overhaul of the communications law in the past sixty-two years. The main aim of this Act is to enable any communications firm to enter the market and compete against one another based on fair and just practices (“The Telecommunications Act 1996,” The Federal Communications Commission). This Act has the potential to radically change the lives of the people in a number of different ways. For instance it has affected the telephone services both local and long distance, cable programming and other video services, broadcast services and services provided to schools. The Federal Communications Commission has actively endorsed this Act and has worked towards the enforcement and implementation of the various clauses listed in the document. The Act was basically brought into existence in order to promote competition and reduce regulation so that lower prices and higher quality services for the Americans consumers may be secured.
Modems are utilized to transmit digital data by means of simple analog system. "Modem" is gotten from the expression "modulator-demodulator." The fundamental elements of a modem are to modulate an analog carrier signal to convey digital data; and to demodulate a comparable signal to decode the digital data from the analog carrier signal.
Berean¡¦s existing network infrastructure is wire line, and uses a T1. Remote users access the network through a dial-up modem pool. Berean¡¦s wire line network model severely limits the accessibility and effectiveness of the Berean network. For example, employees in Berean facilities are unable to access the network easily from meetings, the cafeteria, or anywhere other than their offices. In addition, the effectiveness of remote users is limited by the slow speed of present-day dial-up modem connections.
Ethernet is the most common implementation architecture for LANs. The advantages are it is easily implemented and a low cost solution. Network speeds of 10/100/1000/10000Mbps are readily available and easily implemented. Ethernet supports Unshielded Twisted Pair, Fiber Optic and Coaxial cabling transmission mediums. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) is by far the most common transmission medium, can support transmission speeds up to 10Gbps and has a cable length limitation of 100 meters (328 feet). Recent advances in modulation technology have shown that fiber optic can support transmission speeds of 100Gbps over a single fiber pair; however, the medium is expensive to install and maintain. Therefore it is less common as in in-building transmission medium. Coaxial cable is even less common as a transmission medium. Coaxial cable can support transmission speeds up to 1...
Making a telephone call no longer should conjure up visions of operators connecting cables by hand or even of electrical signals causing relays to click into place and effect connections during dialing. The telephone system now is just a multilevel computer network with software switches in the network nodes to route calls get through much more quickly and reliably than they did in the past. A disadvantage is the potential for dramatic and widespread failures; for as has happened.
Over time the different means of receiving the internet have changed several years ago, a phone line would proved a slow connection to the internet, but would not be useful when storing and...