The Extent to Which the First World War Contributed to the Fall of Czardom in Russia Since the 1905 Revolution, the Czardom continued to decline. The insincerity of the Czar, setting up of Dumas, the rise of revolutionary group and so on had created an explosive situation in Russia. In 1914, Czar Nicolas II decided to enter the First World War in order to rise the prestige and gain support from people, however, it was the fatal mistake ever made by the royal family which acted as a catalyst for the February Revolution. Though at the beginning, the Russian seemed to support to enter the war, military defeats the government's incompetence soon soured much of the population. Maladministration and ineffective economic policies hurt the country financially, logistically and militarily.
Yet, the economic and social aspects of the revolution can be more critically assessed. Lenin knew the importance of ending Russian involvement in World War I. On March 3, 1918 Russia lost 1/3 of its fertile farm lands, 1/3 of its population, 2/3 of its coal mines and oil fields and 1/2 of its heavy industry to German peace terms. Though the treaty of Brest-Litovsk was harsh, the terms were annulled once the Allied powers defeated Germany. Lenin managed to end the war that had for so long depressed Russia's resources and morale.
In addition however Nicholas’s policies of tsarism and Russification shaped circumstances in which a large number of liberal and nationalistic groups were becoming gradually more aggravated (Tsarist Russia). Regardless of increasing police scrutiny, numerous well established opposition groups formed against the tsarist regime (history.com). In an endeavor to divert interest from domestic revolutions, Nicholas initiated conflict against Japan in 1905. Nicholas’s primary aspiration in engaging in such a war was perhaps to merge and amalgamate the Russian public with the tsarist government. Conversely Russia’s degrading defeat in the Russo-Japanese war enthused the opposite reaction.
Repression in Russian Leadership Repression was used under both Nicholas 2 and the Bolsheviks to control the Russian population. The liberal methods employed preceding both governments (Alexander 2 and the Provisional Government respectively) failed completely and discouraged any other form of liberal or democratic controls. The strict extremist ideologies of both the Tsarist and Bolshevik regimes also necessitated violent repression to ensure total compliance. This was needed due to the major political upheavals taking place - the decline of Tsarism despite Nicholas' determination to continue his autocratic rule and the rise of Bolshevism to replace it meant that both parties needed to take a very harsh line. This was exacerbated by the fact that neither party came to power with the 'legitimate vote' of the public and so faced strong opposition that they wished to eliminate.
On 25 October 1917 the Lenin-led Bolsheviks seized control of the Russian government. This Russian revolution had little effect on America until 1919. With the war over Americans began to focus more on domestic matters, the biggest issue being the fear of communism in the United States. 1919 Marked the beginning of the first Red Scare. This was a period of extreme fear of communism in America.
By February 1917, discontent within the Tsarist society had risen to such a level that a revolution occurred. Originally, the revolution began as several protests about poverty, crime and the conditions in which Russians were forced to work and live in. These protests soon vilified Tsar Nicholas and turned into brutal and violent riots, although it can be argued that the Tsar acted villainous towards his people and thus deserved his status as an enemy of the people. There were many contributing factors that led to the Spring revolution, chiefly the growing vexation of the public that began many years before the war and the catalysis of the war in fuelling the fire of discontent. This essay will discuss the effects of these factors on the breakdown of the Tsarist society by February 1917 and form a supported conclusion on which factor had the largest impact and was, ultimately, the main reason for the breakdown of society and the subsequent revolutions.
This coursework will show that part of the key to the monarchy’s survival was the division of the opponents of Tsarism. It took World War I to cause a major breakdown in relations that left the monarchy open to further revolution through total war. The 1905 revolution was the result of the Russo-Japanese war which broke out in 1904. The war saw military and naval defeats for the Russian forces. There were food shortages in cities and the Soviets (assemblies of workers and soldiers’ representatives) were formed in St. Petersburg and Moscow.
Eventually, nations collapse and kingdoms fail, termination can occur through many causes. Whether through being ruled by a sequence of out of touch men, engaging in war, having too many enemies, or an amalgamation: no nation is safe. Russia in the year of 1910 was in an immensely horrible situation, she had all of these problems. If it was not for Vladimir IIich Lenin, Russia would not have existed by 1920. Throughout the February Revolution Lenin was living in exile.
Ironically the end of the tsarist regime in Russia ended not with the removal of the tsar in 1917, but rather with the implementation of one in 1894. The tsarist regime in Russia fell due to the combined incompetency of Nicholas II as tsar, and the resentment of the people towards a system unwilling to change for them. Although the First World War was the event which set off all of the building tensions in Russia and that the tsarist regime had been in jeopardy for a while. The First World War only served as the finality to the events which ruined the legitimacy of the tsar and finally allowed the peop... ... middle of paper ... ...ently. However this was not the case.
The significant historical trend of rebellion against authoritarian rule in Russia is demonstrated through three key events; the 1905 Revolution, the February 1917 revolution and the October 1917 revolution. These events was a culmination of economic, social, and political forces which was driven by a deep dissatisfaction with inequality within society and incompetent leadership of Tsar Nicholas. The events of Bloody Sunday in 1905, as the massacre became known, started a movement that the government could not control and forced the Tsar to make some concessions, which did not last long. The further eroded public confidence in his government and in the view of the lack of the Tsar 's credibility were prepared the way for the 1917 Revolutions.