This in turn influenced the economic policies that drove the main powers of the Cold War even further apart. By far, the biggest contributor to the formation of the Cold War was the fact that both sides believed the communist Soviet Union and the capitalist west ideologies were incompatible with each other. The essence of the Cold War was seen as the opposition of communism and capitalism (Kishlansky, Geary, and O’Brien 874). This belief was present as soon as 1946, when Winston Churchill gave a speech characterizing the Soviet Union as a government that was capable of trying to “enforce totalitarian systems upon the free democratic world” (Churchill 303). He also contrasted the Soviet Union as a state where control was “enforced upon the common people by… police governments,” while the U.S. and Great Britain embodied “the great principles of freedom and the rights of man” (Churchill 303).
The USSR however, accused the United States of practicing Imperialism and with attempting to stop revolutionary activity. Even when denying the accusation of spreading communism throughout the world, the USSR was supporting insurgent revolutions in Asia, Africa and Latin America. After the devastation of World War 2, many western European countries became susceptible against communism. To help prevent this, the United States proposed a program called the Marshall Plan to help rebuild the distraught economies. During 1945 and early 1946, the USSR made efforts to cut off contact with th... ... middle of paper ... ...00 American casualties.
The main source of conflict between USA and USSR was the future status of Europe. The USA wanted a democratic capitalist continent that it could influence. The USSR wanted to spread Communism and prevent the disasters of World War II recurring again. While Stalin was a brutal and ruthless dictator responsible for millions of deaths, feared and resented by many eastern Europeans, he actually did not intend to conquer the world. This was the basic misunderstanding which fueled the Cold War: the U.S. government, as well as many private citizens, believed that the Russians were engaged in a world-wide con... ... middle of paper ... ...e of 1954, West Germany was permitted to join NATO.
Even after the Congo was officially declared independent in 1960, Western and European powers continued to intervene in the nation’s domestic affairs. The Congo Crisis, an era of chaos in the country,occurred from June 1960 until November 1965 and resulted in the assassination of Patrice Lumumba, the Prime Minister. During this period the Congo became an ideological battlefield for the warring powers of the Cold War. The Cold War caused nations to look for new ways to expand their sphere of influence. Consequently, nations attempted to control the newly independent Congo as a means of gaining leverage.
The Cold War also took place in the Middle East. Both Jews and Arabs proclaimed it as their homeland. While supporting Israel, the American Government worked to prevent other stronger, oil-rich countries from falling into communist rule. In addition to this was when the American and British forces, cut off aid to Egypt, due to the fact that the ruler that was seeking Soviet support. In 1956 British and French forces attacked Egypt to gain control of the Suez-Canal.
After promises for free elections were broken by the Soviet Union, the already strained relationships between the two superpowers were worsened. In fear of Soviet expansion, the United Stated adapted a new foreign policy of containment, in which they attempted to stop the progress of communism. The Truman Doctrine of 1947 stated that the United States would help any non- communist country resist the pressures of communism. The Marshall Plan involved sending money to help countries recover from World War II, so that they would be less likely to...
This was a fatal mistake, for it provided America’s President, Dwight Eisenhower, an excuse to move against Lumumba. Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba was viewed as a communist since he was now allied to the Soviet Union. Thus, this made him a Cold War opponent. America had to act quickly so that it could prevent Zaire from becoming a communist country. The CIA recruited Mobutu Sese Seko, (Lumumba’s private secretary and later the chief of staff of the army), to displace and then replace the prime minister.
In this way, communism would be limited. On the other hand, the Soviet Union rejected the USA’s plans and prevented countries within their Soviet Bloc from accepting aid as they may fall to capitalism. Also, the USSR accused the USA of using dollar diplomacy to increase the spread of capitalism. The Soviet Union expanded through Europe in what the USA called The Domino Theory. The Soviet Union also created Foreign Military policies to increase armed forces in case of conflict with capitalist countries as well as increase the influence of communism in Europe.
The US believed in personal freedom while the Soviet society was controlled by the NKVD (secret police). (http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/coldwar.htm) Although the United States and Soviet Union were allies during World War Two they were soon faced with many opposing views soon after the war ended. Joseph Stalin the leader of the Soviet Union had wanted to gain complete control of Eastern Europe most importantly Germany and make it a communist society. Here in the US Truman started to worry about the spread of communism in Eastern Europe. The anticipation of the spread of communism was concerning Truman as if it did proceed to happen it would be greatly affecting the United States economy.
Military alliances also made the relationship worse. For example the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation ensured that if any of the pact were attacked the others would protect it. The USSR responded with a similar military alliance The Warsaw Pact. Cuba was an island near America. A loss of influences in business and colonies in Cuba caused the USA to become angry.