They seemed conjoined, but never connected. And as we can have no idea of any thing which never appeared to our outward sense or inward sentiment, the necessary conclusion seems to be that we have no idea of connection or force at all, and that these words are absolutely without meaning, when employed either in philosophical reasoning or common life”. (Hume, 1737) He asserts that we never see causal necessity, and therefore that the idea of a necessary causal connection is meaningless. This can be more precisely explained if the claim is analysed in individual parts. The first part of Hume’s claim can be seen as being an obvious truth.
He therefore lacks excuses. We cannot explain our actions in terms of or in reference to..."given and specific human nature." (pg 23) This rules out of the possibility of predetermination. "... ... middle of paper ... ...ialism is that one must first make a choice and then act upon the commitment, according to the formula that Sartre provides us with. For the existentialist, hope is a passion that gets him nowhere.
Entrapment in Waiting for Godot and Existence and Existents Samuel Beckett's play Waiting for Godot has been criticized as a play in which nothing happens-twice. Not only are Vladimir and Estragon, the two primary characters, unable to change their circumstances in the first act, the second act seems to be a replay of this existential impotence. Vladimir's remark "Nothing to be done," at the opening of the play, may be said to characterize the whole. Estragon complains that "Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, it's awful!" (Beckett 27).
They, like Vladimir and Estragon, are unable to come up with answers. All of the characters in The Plague and Waiting For Godot exist in their fictional worlds. However, none is able to explain why. Neither work gives the reader an explanation of human existence except to say that humans exist. Providing an answer to the question of existence would constitute a paradox.
They both incorporate gratuitous events, and refuse to supply an interpretation for them. Roquentin refuses to explain why he is unable to pick up the piece of paper in Nausea, and Meursault finds no means, or necessity, to interpret his murder of the Arab in The Stranger. Both novels explore ways to view the world without reducing it into a comforting but illusory system of order. Works Cited Camus, Albert. The Stranger, trans.
Though he seems to create greater symbolism and significance in the name Godot, Beckett actually rejects the notion of truth in language through the insignificance of the title character's name. By creating a false impression of religious symbolism in the name Godot Beckett leads the interpreter to a dead end. For one to make an association between God and the title character's name is completely logical. In fact, in producing the completely obvious allusion, Beckett beckons the interpreter to follow a path of religious symbolism. Throughout the play, references to Christianity are so often mentioned that one can scarcely identify a religious undercurrent; the presence of religion is not really below the surface.
In the literary journal, “'Falling to a diuelish exercise': The Copernican Universe in Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus,” Gabrielle Sugar argues that Faustus does not have total access to infinite knowledge. Since Mephistopheles will not disclose to Faustus whether Copernicus is correct or not, Sugar believes that he does not have knowledge that “exceeds human boundaries” (Sugar, LRC). Christopher Marlowe is not providing society with answers to the timeless inquiries of God and religion, he is only giving us the questions that we must ask ourselves. Eckersley’s argument is that Faustus’ infinite knowledge is not that powerful. He writes that Faustus realizes he does not “have much real power” (Eckersley, LRC) in the middle acts of the play.
On the other hand, Cupitt sees "the world before us is all there is. There is no God, no heaven, no mind and no language that exists outside our human biological sphere. In short, the world is `outsideless' and "is not a preparation for something better and as such we should live as if these were the last days" (Faithorg., U.K.). Against the backdrop of these Cupitt's claims, this essay seeks to critically evaluate the efficacy of his cultural-linguistic approach to religious language and to argue that his ever-changing position on religion, one, he says, should be without all doctrines, creeds and beliefs, only leaves his readers with the puzzle of why it should be called religion at all (Baggini, TPM Online). Religion as Created by Language This essay agrees with Malantschuk's belief that the spiritual crisis at the beginning of the twentieth century triggered off philosophers and theologians to seek enlightenment and assistance in Kierkegaard's dialectics of hu... ... middle of paper ... ...al development and to operate as a collective agency for progressive social change.
How, then, can we claim to "hear the word of God or gods," as many claim to do? Well, in the first place, we know that we will never all hear exactly the same sacred speech, interpret it in unison, or respond to it in the same way. For all that our enlightened scholars of sacred texts may provide—and there probably are more misreadings of a text than can be recognized—the Modern-Enlightenment goal to clear up all variant interpretations of a text will fail, due to the impossibility of confining living gods to our attempted literal interp... ... middle of paper ... ...nce. "I created through my word; I communicate spiritually through inspired words; but the creation of the universe and your world could only be accomplished by the release of power and love as directed by my word. However, now words can be just as deceptive as insightful, and so I judge much more by the acts of love—or of evil—released on others by your words of love or hate.
The Power of Religion and Fate in Macbeth Macbeth presents a religious view of man's existence and destiny. Shakespeare, however, did not write a religious or theological tract. He explored the meaning of human life in those terms which art uses in order to project our deepest thoughts and feelings; in broad, popular religious symbols and myths, whose meaning is as profound as it is easily recognized. The unparalleled religious crisis, through which Europe was passing at the time of Shakespeare writing Macbeth, the first decade of the seventeenth century, shook the traditional religious heritage to its foundations. Placed between an Everyman and a Pilgrim's Progress Macbeth did not have the simple clarity of either; the former was written before the phase of violent disintegration and the latter when more settled ideas had begun to consolidate themselves.